Category: South America

History of APEC

History of APEC

The then Prime Minister of Australia Bob Hawke took the initiative to form APEC. In 1989, the first ministerial meeting was held in Canberra, Australia. The six then ASEAN countries (see separate chapter on ASEAN) attended the meeting, as did the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand and Australia.

At the opening speech, Hawke explained with the cape aimed at the European Union, the EU, that one reason for the formation of APEC was to prevent the world from being divided into “defensive trade blocs”. That APEC does not intend to become a new protectionist EU, the members have clarified on several occasions since then.

The need to find more efficient and organized forms of the sharp increase in trade between North America and East Asia over the past two decades drove the organization’s formation. For the United States, it was important to try to remedy the growing deficit in trade, mainly with China and Japan. It also sought to reach agreement on the ongoing negotiations on freer world trade within the Uruguay Round of the GATT (the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which was replaced in 1995 by the World Trade Organization, WTO). It was hoped that the tough negotiations would be facilitated if the Pacific countries agreed on a common line.

The United States argued early on to link the major Asian economies – China, Taiwan and Hong Kong – to the organization and give it a firmer shape. However, the ASEAN countries were skeptical of attempts to strengthen APEC; they were partly afraid of undermining ASEAN’s position in the region, and partly worried about the idea that the USA would further consolidate its influence.

In an attempt to find a counterpoint to American influence, Malaysia in 1991 took the initiative to form a new economic organization without the United States as well as Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The United States considered that the initiative threatened to split APEC and therefore launched an intensive counter-campaign in which both Japan and South Korea were exposed to strong pressure not to participate. An East Asian Economic Caucus was nevertheless formed in 1994, but it did not become the significant force that Malaysia had envisioned, but stayed with a group within APEC.

When APEC members eventually agreed to allow new members, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan joined the organization. The ministerial meeting in the South Korean capital, Seoul, in 1991 was attended by the three new members. However, Taiwan and Hong Kong (then another British crown colony, returned to China in 1997) did not have the same status as China, which was a prerequisite for the Chinese to approve their presence. Taiwan joins APEC under the name Chinese Taipei, the name of the island in China, and was also only given the right to send lower-ranking officials to APEC ministerial meetings. In 1993, Mexico and Papua New Guinea became members of APEC and in 1994 the membership was further expanded when Chile was also adopted. In 1998, Peru, Russia and Vietnam were also admitted to APEC.

According to shoppingpicks, APEC gained a firmer structure through the decision to set up a permanent secretariat at the 1992 ministerial meeting in Bangkok. However, plans for free trade cooperation progressed at a slower pace. At the Seattle meeting, many of the Asian countries were hesitant about the expert group’s proposal to introduce a free trade area in the Pacific region as early as 1996. But they agreed on a more general wording in which they expressed their desire to work for freer trade in the region. At the 1994 summit in Bogor, Indonesia, the APEC countries decided to form a free trade area by 2020; the more industrialized countries would have liberalized their trade as early as 2010.

At the Osaka ministerial meeting in Japan in 1995, the APEC countries took another step towards a free trade zone after agreeing on an action plan for trade liberalization. However, the negotiations stalled for a long time because the countries had different views, mainly in the field of agriculture. Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan were reluctant to allow foreign competition into their agricultural markets while large exporters of agricultural products – such as Australia, the United States, Canada and New Zealand – refused to allow exemptions. The lock-in only eased after a compromise was reached, which in short was based on the countries liberalizing at their own pace until a certain end date. However, at the Philippines’ ministerial meeting in November 1996, each member could present an individual action plan.

At the Manila Summit in November 1996, the Ministers of Economy decided that tariffs and other barriers to trade in information technology would be removed from the year 2000. When the Ministers met the following year in Vancouver, Canada, the major topic of discussion was the economic and financial crisis. It was also agreed to speed up the liberalization of trade on a voluntary basis, so-called Early voluntary sectoral liberalization, EVSL, in certain areas, including the fisheries sector, wood products, medical equipment, toys.

At the meeting in the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur the following year, Japan refused to agree to reduced tariffs in the forest and fisheries sectors, which caused negotiations on reduced tariffs in the various EVSL areas to stall. It ended with the APEC members handing over the customs negotiations to the World Trade Organization, WTO. The work within the EVSL project was instead concentrated on reducing other types of barriers to trade as well as on economic and technical cooperation.

History of APEC

Shopping and Eating in Salvador, Brazil

Shopping and Eating in Salvador, Brazil

Salvador is one of the largest cities in the country of Brazil.

Shopping in Salvador

The shoppers will have happy days in Brazil. With the exception of imported goods, prices are generally around a quarter of similar prices you are used to from home.

And the selection in Salvador is impeccable; from huge shopping malls with everything from well-known chains and brands, to street markets that sell everything from vegetables to books out of carts. Bargaining is not common in Salvador defined by AbbreviationFinder, but it is always allowed to ask for a cash discount or similar.

Among the typical Brazilian items that you can do a bargain in Salvador are jewels. Brazil is home to some of the most beautiful gems you can get, and throughout Pelourinho and in the markets there are plenty of outlets. However, be aware of imitations and stick to well-known dealers if you are not sure of the quality of what you are buying.

In the street markets you should take an extra look at the crafts. Here you can get such special and useful souvenirs such as hammocks, leather sandals, hand-colored sarongs or carved wooden bowls at very good prices. For example, try the Mercado São Joaquim on the coast north of downtown, which is open daily except Sundays.

Of course, it is tempting to consider buying a solid carnival costume, but think about a) how often are you going to use it? and b) they are very expensive and are manufactured by hand over weeks. Of typical carnival things you might consider a samba drum or a pandeiro, a large, decorated tambourine?

If you prefer to shop in large shopping centers with everything under one roof and air conditioning, you can choose between Shopping Barra, natural enough in Barra, and Shopping Iguatemi, located opposite the city’s rodoviário (bus station).

Eating in Salvador

Food in Salvador, Brazil

One thing is sure; you don’t go hungry from a Brazilian restaurant. You will generally receive huge and satisfying portions at prices you as a Scandinavian just smile off. Salvador has a wide range of dining options, from the most exclusive French cuisine restaurants to the simplest barbecue trolleys by the beach.

The dishes you get served in Bahia are traditionally the most spicy in all of Brazil, and inspired by the region’s African influence with ginger, coriander, coconuts and palm oil. Be aware, however, that palm oil, called dendê, is not something for unstable tourist tummies, so you may want to avoid this for the first few days in Brazil.

The most typical Brazilian dish is feijoada, which may not be for everyone, but should nevertheless be tried. It consists mainly of black boiled beans, tough pork, onion, salt and oil, accompanied by rice and various flavors.

Are you really hungry for meat one day, visit a rodizio. Here you can eat as much as you want from all kinds of meat dishes, from pork, beef, lamb and chicken; ham, beef, fillets, ribs and so on. Of course, rice and salad are included.

A few tips about restaurants in Salvador that you should note: Not everyone takes credit cards, so check it in advance or bring enough cash. You can also get an appetizer on the table without ordering it. If you touch it, it can appear on the bill at an uncomfortably high price, so ask first or send it back. Incidentally, Brazilians eat dinner very late, the restaurants do not start to fill up until the 21st and even later on the weekends.

Recommended restaurants

Restaurante O Picuí
Rua Joao Ponde, Barra. Phone 264-7638.
This restaurant has received wonderful reviews for its specialty Carne do Sol. A serving is usually more than enough for 3-4 hungry people.

Varal da Dada in Rua Teixeira Menezes
55, Alto das Pombas, Federação. Tel 332-1777 or 331-4382.
The proprietor Dada is known as one of Brazil’s best chefs, and she even prepares the food for her guests and likes to chat. The specialty is Bahia food, try Bobo de Camarao, which is large shrimp cooked in palm oil with yucca cream.

Ara – Jardim das Delicias
Rua João de Deus 12, Pelourinho. Phone 322-7068.
Situated in a quiet and idyllic conservatory amidst lively Pelourinho. This is the place where you go when you have plenty of time and want to relax and enjoy life with good local food.

Drink

Steer clear of tap water. You hardly get sick of it, but the taste is not good and bottled water is reasonable. The fruit juice is reasonably priced and wonderfully good, so provide plenty. Freshly squeezed juice from fruits that only grow in the Amazon is not commonplace in Europe.

Of alcoholic beverages, ice cold beers apply. Brahma, Antarctica, and Skol are the most common local brands, and all are good, light, beer beers. Wine does not have a foothold in Brazil, and the local brands are not all over the world. But the Argentine wines are both good and reasonably priced, despite the imports.

And of course you should try the national drink caipirinha, which mainly consists of the sugar liquor cachaca, lime, ice and sugar.

Shopping and Eating in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Shopping and Eating in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

According to AbbreviationFinder, Rio de Janeiro is one of the largest cities in the country of Brazil.

Shopping in Rio de Janeiro

The shoppers will have happy days in Brazil. With the exception of imported goods, prices are generally around a quarter of the corresponding Norwegian prices.

And the selection is impeccable – from huge shopping malls with everything from well-known brands to street markets where everything from vegetables to books are sold from the sellers’ cart wagons. Bargaining is not common in Rio, but it is always allowed to ask for a cash discount or similar.

If you are looking for elegant fashion items and accessories, you should visit Rua Visconde de Piraja on Ipanema, which is the premier shopping street. Here you will find large jewel shops such as H Stern, designer shops and shops selling exclusive leather goods. Many of the fashion chains and designer shops can also be found in Rua Nossa Senhora de Copacabana, at just Copacabana.

If brand names are not so accurate, consider shopping for clothing in Centro, where you can make a bargain at a fraction of the price you will have to pay in the many more touristy and sophisticated beach areas. Try the many supply stores in the Rua Senhor dos Passos street.

Among the typical Brazilian items that can be worth buying in Rio are jewels. Brazil is home to some of the most beautiful gems you can get, and H Stern and Amsterdam Sauer at Ipanema have great showrooms with guided tours in their workshops.

Markets in Rio de Janeiro

In the street markets you should take an extra look at the crafts. Here you can buy special and useful souvenirs such as hammocks, leather sandals, hand-colored sarongs or handmade wooden bowls at good prices. Try the Hippie Market, Feira Hippie, for arts and crafts at Praca General Osorio on Sunday.

If you are looking for more traditional souvenirs, try Feirarte Copacabana. It is open every night on Avenida Atlantica, at Posto 5.

Of course, it is tempting to consider buying a solid carnival costume, but then you have to think about how rare you are going to wear it, and that such costumes are very expensive because of the craftsmanship with long production time.

Of typical carnival items, you might want to consider a samba drum or a pandeiro, a large, decorated tambourine.

Eating in Rio de Janeiro

One thing is sure; you don’t go hungry from a Brazilian restaurant. You will generally receive huge and satisfying portions at prices you as a Scandinavian just smile off. Rio de Janeiro has a wide range of dining options, from the most exclusive French cuisine restaurants to the simplest barbecue trolleys by the beach.

Feijoada

The most typical Rio dish is feijoada. It may not be the first thing you choose, but it should still be tried. It consists mainly of black, cooked beans, tough pork, onion, salt and oil, accompanied by rice with various different flavors.

Casa de Feijoada in Rua Prudente de Morais 10 at Ipanema is one of the city’s specialists on this dish, and for around 100 NOK you can get a full menu including aperitif, appetizer and dessert. The restaurant also has a selection of different caipirinhas. You can get lime, passion fruit, strawberry, kiwi or amazonas guarana. (Don’t try everyone, there are strong things!)

Are you really hungry for meat one day, visit a rodizio. Here you can eat as much as you want of all kinds of meat dishes: pork, beef, lamb and chicken. You can choose ham, beef, fillets, ribs and so on. Of course, rice and salad are included.

East of Copacabana near the beach and street Av. Atlantica offers a number of good quality restaurants. There are also international cuisines all around if tempting. Eg. Italian or Japanese restaurants. Or fast food chains you know before. Two selected restaurants in Rio de Janeiro

Marius Degustare

This is a high quality buffet restaurant. Eat as much as you want. And we promise that Marius Deustare is a restaurant where you will too! Eat a lot. The address is Off. Atlantica 290.

Marius Degustare is open from 1200 until midnight throughout the week.

Restaurant Shirley

Food in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

A little up from the beach on R. Gustavo Sampaio Street, 610 you will find a seafood restaurant known for its delicious food and wonderful service. Restaurante Shirley offers delicious shellfish, prawns from Honolulu are legendary. Like many other restaurants, they are open every day of the week from 1200 until midnight.

Special tips on restaurants in Rio

A few tips about the restaurants in Rio de Janeiro that you should note: Not everyone takes credit cards, so check it in advance, or bring enough cash. You can also get an appetizer on the table without ordering it. If you touch it, it can appear on the bill at an uncomfortably high price, so ask first or send it back.

Incidentally, Brazilians eat dinner very late; the restaurants do not begin to fill up until the 21st and even later on the weekends.

Drink in Rio

Regarding drinks: Steer clear of tap water. You hardly get sick of it, but the taste is not good. In addition, bottled water is affordable.

The fruit juice is reasonably priced and wonderfully good; take care of you while you can! Freshly squeezed juice from fruits that only grow in the Amazon is not everyday for us Europeans.

Of alcoholic beverages, ice cold beers apply. Brahma, Antarctica, and Skol are the most common local brands, and all are good, light, beer beers.

Wine does not have a foothold in Brazil, and the local brands are not all over the world. But the Argentines are also relatively reasonable, despite imports.

And of course you have to try the national drink caipirinha, which mainly consists of the sugar liquor cachaca, lime and sugar.

Shopping and Eating in La Paz, Bolivia

Shopping and Eating in La Paz, Bolivia

According to AbbreviationFinder, La Paz is one of the largest cities in the country of Bolivia.

Shopping in La Paz

You don’t go to La Paz to shop. What is sold in La Paz is often cheap, but the range of international brands is limited. Most of it is sold on the street, and the “brands” you see are copies. Copies are also sold in seemingly decent stores. The most interesting items to buy in La Paz are handmade art objects and llama wool.

The Witch Market – Witches’ Market in La Paz
One of the real attractions is the Witch Market, freely translated from the Mercado de Hechiceria or Mercado de las Brujas as it is called. The market is located on Calle Jiminez and Linares between Sagarnaga and Santa Cruz. Here you will find stalls selling everything from Lama fetuses and dried frogs, which are used to speed up everything from love life to things we should not talk about.

Of course, you will find less foreign things, for example. a number of herbs and props about everything that can contribute to spiritual contact. It is not impossible that you will see a so-called yatiri, or witch doctor, wandering the market. They are easily recognizable by their black hats and coca bags.

Sagarnaga

Sagarnaga is a street that extends from the San Francisco Church. This place is one of the few places in La Paz where there are many tourists. Here you can buy various handmade products such as llama wool, woven rugs and other handmade items. Prices are high at La Paz level.

El Alto

In El Alto there is a market every Thursday and Sunday. This market is incredibly large and is designed for Bolivians. Here everything from meat to furniture is sold via cars. If you find something of interest here you can rest assured that you traded at Bolivia’s cheapest price.

San Miguel

In Zona Sur there are shops with western brands. The range is poor compared to what you are used to from Europe and the US, but if you have a pair of genuine Nike shoes this is the place to look.

Eating in La Paz

Food in La Paz, Bolivia

The food in Bolivia has not impressed European gourmets, so there are not many Michelin stars La Paz can boast. The best food offer is “Almuerzo”. Almuerzo is served between 12 and 15. This is usually a three-course dinner consisting of soup, main course and dessert. There are many hundreds of places serving this in La Paz and new places are coming all the time while old ones are being shut down. The Almuerzoo costs between 10 and 15 bolivianos, which is about the same in Norwegian kroner.

Most eateries with an international menu are in the street «20. octubre »in Soppocachi and of course also in the Zona Sur area. In “October 20,” we recommend:

Vizzio
A short distance down the “20 October” at Plaza Abaroa is Vizzio. The place is run by Palestinians and serves pasta, meat dishes and Arabic food at a relatively reasonable price.

La Comedie
La Comedie is located in a detour from “October 20”. This is a typical gringo site that is full of Americans. The restaurant serves mainly French cuisine. But the llama here is also exquisite and should be tried.

Mongos
In the street between Plaza Abaroa and Plaza Isabella Catolica lies Mongos. This is also a typical gring site. The place serves food from 6pm and for a while into the evening before being turned into a disco. It is said that Mongos has the best burgers in town.

Maphrao On
This restaurant is located on Calle Hermanos Manchego Street, number 2586, one block below Plaza Isabella Catolica. Maphrao On serves mostly Indian dishes.

Shopping and Eating in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Shopping and Eating in Buenos Aires, Argentina

According to AbbreviationFinder, Buenos Aires is one of the largest cities in the country of Argentina.

Shopping in Buenos Aires

Thanks to a very favorable exchange rate of currency, most of Argentina can be bought at very good prices. Also, inflation and poor economy do not prevent portos from acting wrong. Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina described on Countryaah is South America’s best shopping city and can offer most things from exclusive designer items to simple wooden products.

Among the best purchases you can make are leather products, which is what Argentina has become known for. You will find shoes, jackets, bags and gloves of excellent quality less expensive in Buenos Aires than in Europe. Typical souvenirs include world-class Argentine red wine, and craft products such as woven rugs or perhaps a poncho. The national drink mate is also a distinctive Argentine product and a great gift tip.

The centerpiece for shopping in Buenos Aires is the lively Florida pedestrian street, teeming with fashion boutiques, leather product stores, bars and restaurants, and with musicians and street performers entertaining passersby. In Palermo Viejo there are many small, independent shops selling souvenirs such as crafts, textiles and ethnic art.

Flea markets and shopping centers The
flea market at Plaza Dorrego in San Telmo is one of the most Argentinian you can bring, and takes place every Sunday. At the other end of the scale, there are plenty of large, modern shopping malls like Patio Bullrich (in Avenida de Liberador 750) orGalerias Pacifico (in Calle Florida)

General about shopping in Buenos Aires
Most shops in Buenos Aires are open from 11am. 0900 or 1000 and is open until 11:00. 1900 or 2000 on weekdays. Saturdays most closes around 9 pm 1300, and Sundays it is mostly closed everywhere. Don’t forget that you pay 21% VAT, and you can get a refund on any purchase over $ 70, or approx. 450 NOK, on ​​departure. Not all stores have this scheme, so look for the Tax Free Shopping badge at the entrance to buy some more expensive items. Remember to bring a completed and stamped form and receipt.

Eating in Buenos Aires

Food in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Food and drink is an important part of Argentine culture, and portos love their restaurant dinners, which are consumed late at night.

The great immigration from Europe has made its mark on the restaurant offer in Buenos Aires ; Here you will find many Italian, Spanish and French restaurants. Of course, there are also Mexican, Chinese and Indian eateries as well as all the American chains from McDonald’s to TGI Fridays and Hard Rock Café.

But you don’t go to Argentina to eat pasta, cheeseburgers or chop suey! The Argentinian steak has a reputation for being the juiciest and darkest you can serve, so visit a parrilla for a feast. You get a big beef for around 100 kroner, and a bottle of red wine for the same price.

In general, Argentine cuisine is very meat-dominated, but there are plenty of good seafood restaurants, and vegetarians are also getting more and more choices to choose from.

Argentine wine

The Argentinians are rightly very proud of their wine, and the country is the world’s fifth largest wine producer. Argentine wine is impossible to put into booths, it comes in all varieties.

The best-known wines are made from the Malbec grape type, which is grown in vineyards in the Andes and has won several international awards. The white wines are usually fresh, fruity and dry.

You can also come out for another national drink, the hot, bitter herb drink mate. The taste may take some time to get used to, but you should feel very welcome and welcome if you are offered a tear.

The ritual of preparation and consumption of food is almost the whole point, as a cup is sent clockwise around the table to several, all drinking from the same bombilla, a combined straw and filter of metal.