Category: North America

Greenland History

Greenland History

According to DISEASESLEARNING, Greenland is the largest Arctic territory and at the same time (2,175,600 sq km) the largest island on earth. From C. Morris Jesup (83 ° 40 ′ N.) to C. Farvel a S. (59 ° 45 ′ N.) it has a maximum length of 2650 km; the width varies considerably, as the wholesale island develops in the shape of a quadrilateral (to the north) and a triangle (to the south), joined on one of their sides (maximum width 1050 km.). Open sea areas and wide canals isolate it from the nearby masses, but to the NW. the North American archipelago approaches it up to a few km. (Land of Ellesmere, Land of Grant), while also on the opposite side, at a relatively small distance (about 300 km.), A large island (Iceland) faces it.

Exploration. – The history of the most ancient knowledge around Greenland in Europe can be deduced from various and not always concordant Icelandic chronicles of the advanced Middle Ages. The island was discovered around 900 AD. C. by one of the Norwegian settlers of Iceland, Gunnbiorn son of Ulf; the discovery followed from 982 to 984, the first settlement by Erik Rauda (Erico the Red), who, turning west the Farvel Cape, gave the green land along the narrow coastal edge the auspicious name of Grönland (Green Earth). Other settlements then followed and distributed all along the SW coast. of the large island, where this was best accessible, ended up giving rise to two distinct districts, the Oesterbygd (from Cape Farvel up to about 61 ° N.) and Vesterbygd (from 63 ° to 66 ° 30 ‘), both in the more sheltered and more habitable part of the island. The number of settlers – Icelandic and Norwegian – grew so much to reach, in the time of their greatest fortune (that is to say in the 13th century), two or three thousand; they also had their own bishopric in Gardar, which lasted active from 1126 to 1377; it is also probable that during this epoch of civilization the most daring pushed their explorations to the north for fishing reasons, especially along the west coast. Iceland and the most remote homeland Norway remained until the century. XV in relation to these distant avant-gardes of their people, but already due to the difficult communications the elected bishops no longer reached the see of Gardar, and from 1410 also all regular navigation with Europe ceased. Near the end of the century. XV we can say the lost colony,

New contacts with the island start again with the century. XVI – that is to say after the American discovery -, perhaps first touching the Portuguese expedition of Gaspare Cortereal (1500), then with more lasting recognition the English Frobisher, Davis, Baffin, headed in search of the north-west passage. Martin Frobisher touches the W coast in 1578; John Davis meets in 1585 the coast which he calls the Land of Desolation just to the NE. of Cape Farvel and in 1587 sailed along the western shore for more than 1500 km. discovering it up to 72 ° 15 ‘; William Baffin in 1616 with particularly fortunate navigation continues further to N. arriving up to the entrance (not revealed at the time as such) of the Smith Sound at 78 °. But beyond the English, and not for the search for the passage of NO. but out of interest in the Greenlandic land itself and the ancient Scandinavian settlers, perhaps not yet extinct, the Dano-Norwegians sail to the great island: some expeditions at the time of Christian III (late sixteenth and early seventeenth century) try to land on the east coast where they they believed the old medieval colonies existed; J. Hall, on the other hand, arrives with greater luck in the western one. But only a century later the Danes finally managed to put their foot down there, when in 1721 Hans Egede, a Norwegian shepherd fervent in the idea of ​​trying the old colonization, with the support of King Frederick IV returned to the west coast and there settles, starting the new Danish possession with a first factory that soon became Godthåb. L’ Egede stayed there for 14 years teaching the Eskimos civil customs and trust of exchanges, exploring the coast further north and founding or starting new establishments. Missionaries and merchants and government agents who came later extended the coastal occupation in the same century. XVIII with regular establishments (Christianshåb, Jakobshavn, Frederikshåb, etc.) up to Upernivik.

Thus pushed forward the colonization of the western strip, with the beginning of the century. XIX began and rapidly progressed by the Danish navy and above all thanks to WH Graah, the precision surveys; the German CL Gieseke from 1806 to 1813 begins the first mineralogical and geological investigations, various Scandinavian scholars deepen the archaeological research; numerous naturalists prelude with their research to the great work of Danish H. Rink, which constitutes the fundamental scientific study of the entire colonized strip of the island (1848-55). Six thousand and more km. of coasts surveyed, studies and topographic and geological maps also attest to the activity of the Danish government and scientists throughout the occupied territory in the following period.

But in the meantime the knowledge of the boundary of the great land was greatly improving. The chap. Inglefield, English, sailing in 1852 to N. of the last northern term reached by the Baffin more than two centuries earlier, discovered the entrance to the Smith Sound, and opened the way – as well as the future achievement of the Pole, which will be accomplished in 1909 – discovering the entire northern tour of the Greenland coasts: the Americans E. Kane in 1853-55, I. Hayes in 1861, F. Hall in 1871, Lieutenant Beaumont of the English Nares expedition in 1876, Lieutenant Lockwood of the American expedition Greely in 1882, each added new stretches of coast discovered more and more in the north, the last of these reaching up to lat. of 83 ° 24 ‘. Having now almost reached the Northern Greenlandic term here, new touches added in 1886 and in the following years the discoveries of the American RE Peary; in 1892 he also tried, starting from the Inglefield gulf, the internal ice to avoid the painful tour of the long coastal indentations and thus succeeded in a completely new northern coastal stretch that appeared to him the outlet of a large canal (Independence Channel), where the edge of the large island already appears to turn from the extreme north to the east.

This whole series of modern discoveries, which from the first of the Inglefield to this outlet of the Peary on the north-east coast, reveal in forty years the whole NO boundary. and N. of Greenland, is accompanied by another series of discoveries, much slower and more difficult, along the E. limb always protected by dangerous ice barriers. The only one that before the century. XIX had recognized a fairly long stretch of coast here was the famous English discoverer Henry Hudson who, sailing for Holland in 1607, had followed the usually inaccessible shore from 70 ° to 73 ° N for about three degrees. late chap. Graah managed in 1828 to penetrate close to the coast with a village boat from Cape Farvel, detecting each point in detail for 700 km. up to 65 ° 30 ‘; the Scottish whaler Scoresby had been able to touch the coast a few hundred kilometers the previous year. further to N. and to detect in part with great accuracy the contour between 69 ° 13 ‘and 75 ° 12’, followed a year later in the same neighborhood by DC Clavering, also English, and by the scientist E. Sabine. But these fruitful expeditions of the first decades of the century followed forty years without any more ship being able to overcome the hedge of the coastal ice, so that, when the western Greenland shore had already been climbed up to 81 ° (Hayes, 1861), along the east all is unknown beyond the point reached by Scoresby, not only that, but considerable unexplored or badly explored gaps also remain in S. The lively propaganda conducted in Germany by geographer A. Petermann finally attracts once again the ‘ pay attention to these unexplored places; after a first attempt of the ship Germany, which in 1868 barely caught a glimpse of the coast, the same ship, led by Capt. K. Koldewey, was able in 1869 – while his partner Hansa was lost in the ice – to reach Sabine Island and, after wintering, to discover and explore the imposing Franz Joseph fjord; the Austrian J. Payer, in charge of the expedition, reached Cape Bismarck almost at 77 ° 30 ′ with the sleds further N.

In the following years, until the end of the century, no other notable expeditions are to be recorded along the difficult coast, except those of the Danish navy lieutenant Amdrup, who in ’98 and ’99 managed to explore the still so little known stretch between 65 ° and 70 °, and that of the Swedish scientist AG Nathorst who in ’99 added new discoveries and precise reconnaissance in the Franz Joseph fjord and in the others further south up to a latitude of 70 °. But the sec. XX finally gives the impetus to the decisive explorations destined to fill the large white space still existing in the maps for the whole NE. of the island from Cape Bismarck to the Independence Channel discovered by Peary. Duke Filippo d’Orléans first, with the Belgica ship(led for the scientific part by the Belgian explorer A. De Gerlache), he discovers the stretch from Cape Bismarck up to 78 ° 17 ‘in a happy campaign in the summer of 1900. Then, in a single expedition lasting three years (1906-1908), the Danish Mylius Erichsen, moving from his ship Danmark anchored to Cape Bismarck, deliberated to complete the circumnavigation of the island but forced to make a very long tour by the unexpected extension of the contour with a large protrusion towards the NE., it reaches with extreme difficulty in March 1907 Cape Bridgman already reached by Peary, a triumph later paid for, in the disastrous return, with death from running out of food. Eynar Mikkelsen in a further exploration in 1910-11 happily finds again the diary and the cards of the heroic explorer. Greenland was thus recognized in almost all of its very long outline.

The large armor of the inlandsis, of the internal ice which, covering the whole island (except for the more or less narrow coastal edge), forbids human dwellings for such a vast space, was not the object of any attempted exploration until the middle of the century. . XIX, when the desire arose to know the extent, perhaps not compact, of the immense icy cap and its altitude, physical and climatic conditions, movements, etc. These attempts, also dangerous to human lives, begin with the aforementioned H. Rink from 1848 to ’51; in 1870 EA Nordenskjöld extends up to 56 km. reaching 610 m. of altitude, in 1878 Jensen goes to heights of 3000 m. on the so-called nunatakkers who rise with their rocky backs out of the mantle of ice; in 1883 the Nordenskjöld renews the attempt going up to 120 km. inland from the shore of the Strait of Davis, in 1886 he attempted the Peary from the shore of Smith Sound; finally in 1888 Fridtjof Nansen, departed from Umivik (64 ° 25 ‘) descends to the west coast after 42 days of crossing (560 km.). The German E. v. Drigalsky (1891-92); traverses the island again the Peary, as already mentioned, in 1892 from 77 ° 30 ′ (Smith Sound) reaching the Independence Channel at 81 ° 87 ′, and then repeats the crossing twice more (1895 and 1912) in not very different latitudes; another more southern crossing (this in the direction E.-O.) is due to JP Koch and A. Wegener (former companions of Erichsen), transited where the island is widest from Cape Bismarck to Pröven on the west coast, miraculously safe after 1200 km. of paths (1913); another still much more to S. is due to A. de Quervain (1912).

A systematic series of explorations led after 1912 the Greenlandic scholar Knud Rasmussen, to which the Danish Lauge Koch was added, starting from the scientific station of Thule maintained by the Danish government on the Smith Sound; the Lauge Koch from 1920 onwards studied the geology of the whole northern part with various successive expeditions and in 1926, centered at Scoresby Sund, that of the east coast. The German Wegener, who returned once more to his favorite field of study in 1929 to prepare an aerological station in the heart of the island, carried out very important glacialogic investigations, but died killed by suffering and cold in November 1931. Even greater knowledge is now available.

Greenland History

Holidays in Dominican Republic

Holidays in Dominican Republic

Literally 15 years ago, a vacation in the Dominican Republic for Russians was the ultimate dream, but now you won’t surprise anyone with a trip to the other end of the planet for the sake of the tropical sun, smiling girls and incendiary rumba rhythms. You can go here, running away from the harsh winter to the gentle sea, or you can feel the history of the colonization of Central America, and go around all the museums and attractions that still remember the pioneer Columbus and other legendary characters.

Pros and Cons of the Dominican Republic


  • Unique climate, clean beaches and sea
  • You can visit almost all year round
  • A large number of “colonial” attractions
  • Relatively low prices for accommodation and recreation
  • Rich sightseeing tours
  • Friendly and helpful locals


  • Very long flight across the Atlantic
  • Language barrier – you will have to bring a Spanish phrase book with you
  • Some areas have high crime rates
  • Before traveling, you need to get several vaccinations against tropical diseases


According to, the climate of the republic belongs to a typical tropical zone with a strong influence of the trade winds, which determine the seasonality of the year. From July to October, inclusive, heavy rains fall on the Haitian country, while the air temperature remains very high, which scares away most tourists. In the rest of the months, the Dominican Republic is warm, with relative humidity reaching 80%, and rains can occur even in the middle of December, when the country officially has a “drought” season.

How to get to the Dominican Republic

By plane

The only acceptable way to get to the Dominican Republic from Russia is by flying across the Atlantic Ocean from Moscow or St. Petersburg with a layover in Europe or the USA. There are no direct flights from Russia today, the reason for this is the huge distance between the countries. An alternative option for residents of the Far East is a flight to Seoul, Shanghai or Hong Kong, and from there on a direct charter flight to Santo Domingo. But this option will be even more expensive and longer, taking into account the expectations. The minimum flight time via Germany or Spain is 12 hours.


The issue of transport can seriously spoil the rest in the Dominican Republic, as it is perhaps the main problem for tourists. There are not many buses, and even on weekdays they are crowded with locals. The fare in them costs from 5 pesos.

Municipal buses in cities are very similar to our “accordions”, but they are more expensive, because they are considered a more comfortable way to travel. One trip from 15 pesos.

The metro is only in Santo Domingo, and today connects only a few blocks. The passage through the turnstiles is standard, by cards. It will cost from 30 pesos.

Taxi is quite popular among tourists, but drivers in any city are a special caste of people who try to cash in on any passenger. It is useless to bargain with them, there is no taximeter in any car. The minimum cost is 50 pesos.

Renting a car or moped is possible if you know exactly where to relax in the Dominican Republic, but rental prices vary, often without any explanation. The rules for obtaining keys are standard: age from 25 years, driving experience of at least 3 years and the presence of all necessary marks in the insurance policy in case of an accident.


The official currency in the country is the Dominican peso, DOP. 1 peso contains 100 centavos.

Most large hotels, shopping centers and restaurants accept both national money and US dollars – many years of cooperation with travel agencies from the United States has affected. A number of shops and even markets duplicate price tags in two currencies.

It is best to pay in cash, dishonest sellers can “cheat” with bank cards. There are ATMs in almost every hotel from 3 or more stars, but they give out only pesos, and in a strictly limited number of banknotes.

It is worth changing money immediately, at the branch of any bank at the airport terminal. Any financial institution in the Dominican Republic operates 5 days a week from 8:00 to 15:00.


If you are looking for an exotic gastronomic getaway, the Dominican Republic will offer you such a variety of dishes from seemingly familiar European products that you will involuntarily want to go around all the national cafes in search of your favorite recipe.

  • Mangu – no, this is not a variant of the name of the fruit, but mashed bananas with cheese, ham and a whole bunch of seasonings from herbs that grow on the island.
  • Cueso frito – there is a hint in the name, this is the name of a deep-fried appetizer. Most often – cheese slices of different thicknesses.
  • Arroz con Pollo is a dinner dish, and again made of cheese, which is rubbed onto a plate, and a baked chicken leg is placed on top of the shavings.
  • Sancocho – someone will say that this is a stew, and someone will say that it is a thick soup. Both will be right, because the meat dish is very satisfying due to rice and rich broth.
  • La bandera is a kind of roast, where the main component is green bananas, which are fried in oil until crispy. Red beans, specially prepared rice and onions are used as a side dish.
  • Puerco en puya – roasted pork. Like any dish where the word “puerco” is present, pork is the main ingredient here.

Frequently asked Questions


What is the classification of hotels in the Dominican Republic? Is there a difference from the European system? What do our tourists need to know?


Officially, there is no difference, with the exception that the status of “stardom” is formal, and it is appointed by the hotel owners themselves. As a rule, hotels from 3 stars and above work on an all-inclusive basis: with breakfast, lunch, dinner and a free bar with local alcohol – rum, cocktails and beer. But domestic moments can cause trouble. Power outlets 120 V/60 Hz, US plugs – adapter required. Power outages are a constant problem even for expensive resorts. Most of the guest complexes in the Dominican Republic are small buildings with a maximum of 4 floors. They do not like skyscrapers here, preferring not to disturb the natural look of tropical nature.


Can a vacation in the Dominican Republic be dangerous, and where to call in case of emergency?


Depends what you mean by that. In the resort regions, tourist areas are trying to protect from street crime, but in the interior of the country the situation with crime and the risk of robberies remains tense, in part, because of migrants from neighboring Haiti. In the jungle, spiders and poisonous snakes are the main danger to humans. Therefore, it is not recommended to refuse a guide, even if you are confident in your abilities and have transport. The single emergency number is 911. But keep in mind that there are hospitals with a hospital only in large cities, and some types of surgery are performed only in Santo Domingo. All risks must be specified in the insurance policy.


What is the best time of the year to visit the Dominican Republic?


It is easier to answer when it is better not to go to the Dominican Republic. From May to July it is very hot here, and given the high humidity, it will be difficult for people with problematic pressure in the resorts. From August to early November, tsunamis and hurricanes often hit Haiti with consequences in the form of floods. Well, from December to April, a particularly pleasant vacation awaits you. The Dominican Republic is especially good during these months.


Is it possible to roam in the Dominican Republic, or is it better to buy a local SIM card immediately upon arrival?


Of course, it is better to immediately use national operators, there are only three of them in the Caribbean country: Orange, Claro and Viva. You can buy cards only upon presentation of a passport in communication salons. Offers from street sellers should be politely refused, most often they sell inactive numbers.

Holidays in Dominican Republic

Otavalo and Banos, Ecuador

Otavalo and Banos, Ecuador


Otavalo (Spanish: Otavalo) is a small town in Ecuador, nestled in a picturesque valley at the foot of the Imbabura volcano (Spanish: Volcan Imbabura; 4609 m a.s.l.). It is the administrative center of the canton of the same name, which is part of the province of Imbabura (Spanish: Provincia de Imbabura), located 95 km along the Pan-American Highway northeast of the country’s capital, Quito (Spanish: San Francisco de Quito).

The very fertile volcanic soil of the valley, surrounded by the Andes chain, encourages the locals to harvest 3 crops a year of various vegetable crops. Wheat, barley, potatoes, corn, rice, sugarcane and citrus fruits are grown here. The residents also raise cattle and sheep. Forest industries are developed in the region, such as harvesting valuable balsa wood, collecting palm nuts and hevea juice.


The amazing town of Banos, surrounded by mountains and fast rivers, is located on the slope of the active volcano Tungurahua (5004 m) at an altitude of 1820 m above sea level. The volcanic eruption is now taking place in the form of ejections of columns of steam.

It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the Ecuadorian Sierra with a mild subtropical climate. Due to its unique location, Baños is one of the most visited places in Ecuador. These places were chosen by the Incas because of the unique beauty of the local nature, and also because of the healing properties of the local thermal springs. At the foot of the mountain there are public baths-pools with healing water from thermal springs gushing from the volcano. In some – a real boiling water. When the water cools, it is allowed into the second pool, the most popular among bathers. The third pool contains meltwater from the icy peaks of the same volcano. And all around is fabulous beauty: on the one hand, a view of Banos opens, on the other – the kingdom of wild nature. There are several hotels in Banos that have their own thermal springs.

The surroundings of Banos are also famous for the most picturesque waterfalls flowing in large numbers from the surrounding mountains. In these places is the so-called Avenue of the Falls, which stretches to the town of Rio Verde. The most interesting mountain routes are provided here, which can be overcome both on foot and on quad bikes, mountain bikes, horses, and part of the route can be overcome with the help of a cable car hanging over the abyss. In a special open trailer by cable car, you can cross the canyon in the immediate vicinity of one of the waterfalls. Here you can enjoy the magnificent spectacle of water breaking from the surrounding cliffs and the majestic mountain landscapes of the Andes. One of the city attractions of Banos is the Basilica, located in the central square is a sophisticated gothic structure made of volcanic stone. This temple was built in honor of the Virgin of the Holy Water, who is the patroness of the city.

Banos, Ecuador

National Parks in Costa Rica

National Parks in Costa Rica

Turrialba Volcano National Park

The Turrialba region is located 65 km east of San José, northwest of the city of Cartago.

The main attraction is the Turrialba volcano (3340 meters above sea level) and the neighboring Irazu volcano, which is why they are often called twin volcanoes. Volcano Turrialba includes three equally active craters. The central crater is the deepest (50 meters deep).

The average temperature in this area is +16°C.

Turrialba is the second largest and only volcano in Costa Rica, allowing you to descend into one of its three craters and observe secondary volcanic activity up close.
This high humidity region is a mosaic of primeval mountain forests, biological reserves and coffee plantations. It maintains a delicate balance between agricultural activities and the preservation of the environment. The scenic beauty, diversity of flora and fauna, rafting and kayaking opportunities make Turrialba a favorite destination for adventure travelers and nature explorers. Jungle and rainforest lovers will be attracted by numerous hiking trails. For those who prefer horseback riding and cycling, there are also excellent opportunities for outdoor activities.

Tortuguero National Park

Tortuguero National Park is a four hour drive from San José, or 254 km. This is an archipelago of volcanic islands in the Caribbean Sea with its own unique natural conditions. The park got its name after the name of the river of the same name, which flows in these places, has numerous branches, tributaries and canals.

Traveling through the canals, you can see giant iguanas, lizards perched on branches, vultures circling above the treetops, and crocodiles merging with the trunks of palm trees hanging over the smooth surface of the river. In the fog, constantly standing over the river, bats rush swiftly, hunting river fish on the fly.

The journey to Tortuguero usually starts by bus (or plane) from the capital and then continues by boat. Another way to get into the park is simply not provided by nature itself. There are no roads, as such, and civilization has not yet managed to get to these places.

The rivers flowing from the Sierra Mountains towards the Caribbean Sea have, over thousands of years, washed up many kilometers of sandy beaches, which have created unique conditions suitable for the breeding of large sea turtles. The very name of the river and the area is directly related to these amazing marine animals (in Spanish, the turtle is “tortuga” (tortuga)). 50,000 tourists visit Tortuguero every year to see the green turtles that lay their eggs on the park’s beaches from April to May.

For nature lovers, Tortuguero is a real paradise on Earth. Warm tropical rains, which occur regularly here, serve as the basis for a rich biosystem, which is further complicated by the confluence of fresh and salty sea waters. A marshy selva has formed here, which, in turn, creates unique natural conditions.

The national park provides tourists with all the known outdoor activities, but the highlight of your trip to Tortuguero will, of course, be a night sea turtle watching tour. When visiting the park, tourists also have the opportunity to go horseback riding, surfing and fishing in these protected areas. It is very interesting to visit the famous banana plantation “Chicita”.

Monteverde National Park

Monteverde Nature Reserve, located at an altitude of more than 1400 meters of the Tilaran volcanic cordillera, is famous throughout the world as one of the richest natural reserves in the tropical zone. The park includes six different natural areas. This is one of the richest natural reserves in the tropical zone. About 400 species of birds live in the forests of Monteverde, including the famous quetzal – the sacred bird of the Maya, about 100 species of mammals, 120 species of amphibians and reptiles, and about 2,500 species of plants that attract connoisseurs of tropical beauty. More than 400 species of white, purple and yellow orchids gracefully wrap around the trunks and branches of exotic trees.

The foggy forest of the park makes the hearts of biologists, ornithologists and ordinary people beat faster.
In the park there is an opportunity to walk along suspension bridges, and for fans of extreme sports – like Tarzan, make a “canopy tour”. For this, those who wish are suspended on a long metal rope stretched hundreds of meters above the jungle, which allows you to look at the beauty of the national park from a flight height, sometimes reaching up to 40 meters above the base. The traveler is dressed in safety gear, hung on a carbine to a rope, and the “hero” flies over the peaks, enjoying the views of the rainforest and watching its inhabitants from close.
In the vicinity of the reserve there are many hotels (lodges) where you can stay for a few days. At the entrance to the reserve there are feeders for hummingbirds, to which hundreds of these tiny birds flock during the day, nectar-eating bats at night, and after sunset, gray foxes and tree olingo raccoons come. In the mornings flock to feast on the fruits of trees – quetzals, black crabs and other rare birds. At night, you can see tree porcupines, jaguarundi cats.

Manuel Antonio National Park

Manuel Antonio National Park was created in 1972 and covers a very small area, which is estimated at about 683 hectares, being the smallest, but at the same time the most beautiful park in Costa Rica. The park is located 180 km from San Jose. The exclusivity of these places lies in the fact that this piece of land with the ocean is one of the most biologically rich regions in the world and offers the best scenery in all of Costa Rica.

Jungles full of exotic animals and birds, white sandy beaches, lush green vegetation surrounded by high mountains, secluded bays, islands and an amazing variety and colors of the underwater world – all these are the components of one of the most romantic places on Earth.

Everywhere there are capuchin monkeys, sloths, iguanas, agoutis, red forest crabs Manuel Antonio – this is a haven for migratory birds that feel great here. In addition to the marine species typical of these places, you can see dolphins and whales near the coast. In this little corner of Costa Rica, you can find an amazing adventure in the rainforest and relaxing on a magnificent beach.

Here, adventure lovers have the opportunity to take walks along the paths of the park, kayak excursions near the coast, horseback riding and fishing.

Mangrove swamps are one of the trump cards in Manuel Antonio’s deck of attractions. Overgrown canals, birds, crocodiles and other rare species of animals accompany tourists throughout a small educational expedition.

Not far from Manuel Antonio there is a whole complex of Damas underground caves. An organized visit to the underground corridors and halls is a real adventure that will add significant variety to your journey. The high arches of a hundred underground halls, stalactites and stalagmites, bats – all this is available for viewing under the vigilant eye of a trained escort. As an attached bonus – swimming in one of the natural underground pools filled with miraculous healing water, so that, in addition to amazing experiences, the descent into the realm of the Minotaur also has a therapeutic effect.

Arenal Volcano National Park

Arenal Volcano National Park, located in the northwest of the country, includes 8 of Costa Rica’s 12 ecological zones and 16 reserves between Guanacaste and the Tilaran mountain range. On the territory of the park there is Lake Arenal and two volcanoes: Chato, in the ruined crater of which an emerald lake was formed, and the Arenal volcano of an ideal conical shape (1633 m) is the main attraction of the park. Arenal is the most active volcano in Costa Rica, the top of which, however, is hidden in the clouds most of the time. In pre-Columbian times, Arenal was especially active, due to which the Indian tribes considered the volcano a sacred creature.
Today, in the Indian village of La Fortuna di San Carlos, located at the foot of the volcano, tourists from all over the world come to freeze in admiration at the sight of fiery lava flows running down the mountainside. However, not everyone can see the eruption, the volcano is often covered by clouds. According to the Indians, the air near the crater is healing, as it is saturated with vapors.

Arenal heats water for hot springs, on which entire cascades of pools, ponds, and waterfalls are built.

In the national park at an altitude of 1700m above sea level, there is an artificial lake of the same name – Arenal. Its area is 80 km2 and is the largest lake in Costa Rica. The lake is deservedly considered one of the best places on the planet for practicing this sport – the winds here are quite strong and constant, especially from April to December.

The climate in the Arenale region is milder and it rains less than in the rest of the country. The temperature can drop to +10 (in winter, night frosts down to -5 C are possible).

Costa Rica Arenal Volcano National Park

United States Literature – The American Renaissance

United States Literature – The American Renaissance

Taken from the title of an essay by the literary critic FO Matthiessen (1941), the expression designates the golden period of American literature of the 19th century, the one in which, in the mid-century years, RW Emerson, HD Thoreau, N. Hawthorne, H. Melville and W. Whitman published their major works.

5.1 Transcendentalism. The assumption of this artistic flourishing was the affirmation in New England of a current of thought, directly inspired by German idealism, called transcendentalism, which had its maximum development between 1836, the year of publication of Emerson’s essay, Nature, and the moment in which, towards the mid-1850s, the specter of civil war began to loom. Born as an evolution of the Unitarian Church with which, starting from 1815, WE Channing had attempted a first liberal reform of the dominant Calvinist rigidity, transcendentalism found in RW Emerson the greatest exponent and the most authoritative theorist. Claiming, on the basis of Kantian teaching, the absolute centrality of the cognitive process, precisely transcendent, Emerson became the interpreter of a concept of religious freedom that recognized the individual’s ability to participate, by virtue of the spontaneity of the mystical experience, to the knowledge of the collective transcendent soul (oversoul). One of the founders of the magazine The Dial, with a very pragmatic nature, in his most famous speeches Emerson bends his transcendentalist creed to the needs of independence of the American culture of the time (The American scholar, 1837), to those of freedom of testimony (The divinity school address, 1838) and affirmation of individual abilities (Self-reliance, in the Essays of 1841), thus giving life to a corpus (formed, in addition to the imposing Journals and Representative men, 1851, by other volumes of essays, poems, letters) which, albeit unsystematic, it became the breeding ground for the definitive American intellectual and artistic emancipation. ● The fundamental optimism with which Emerson looks at the individual and his harmonious relationship with nature becomes an integral part of the vision that his friend HD Thoreau articulates in his most important writings, Concord and Merrimack rivers (1849) to that masterpiece of American prose, between story, essay and diary, which is Walden (1854), a text in which Thoreau traces the two years of isolation in the woods near Concord which 1845 and 1847. This individualistic drive finds its proper political outlet in the essay Civil disobedience, which appeared as Resistance to civil government in 1849, in which the transcendentalist Thoreau, anticipating certain forms of anarchist spontaneism of the 20th century, defends the reasons of the individual against the power of a state that its profound political conscience finds a way to heavily criticize in the context of the abolitionist debate; and again, in the essays by Slavery in Massachusetts (1854) and in the famous A plea for John Brown (1860).

5.2 The novel. Still on the conflict between the individual and society, on the meanings of the link between man and nature, N. Hawthorne, the author who lays the foundations of that American tradition that he will find in the work of H. James, investigates in that same strip of Massachusetts.further development. Torn between a strong sense of the guilty excesses of the Puritan heritage and the imperative to give dignity to an artistic practice that is still largely poorly tolerated (recurring motifs of his stories, collected in the two editions of Twice-told tales, 1837, 1852; and in Mosses from an old manse, 1846), it is in the great historical fresco of The scarlet letter (1850), even more than in The house of the seven gables (1851) and in the other novels, that he manages to transpose his moral labor into literary testimony of the first magnitude, an allegory of an interior torment experienced in isolation. ● And it is precisely to the genius of Hawthorne that H. Melville will dedicate the other undisputed masterpiece of nineteenth-century American fiction, that Moby Dick which, which appeared in 1851, would be recognized as such only much later. After the happy debut with exotic atmospheric novels (Typee, 1846; Omoo, 1847) and the partial failure of the allegorical Mardi (1849), with Redburn (1849) and White Jacket (1850) Melville returns to investigate the precarious balance of life on board, already directly experienced in his youth as a sailor, which will be the background to the great Faustian drama of Ahab and the crew of the Pequod. Making use of an extraordinary variety of linguistic casts, from the biblical model to Shakespeare, from oral cadences to scientific lexicon, Moby Dick is constructed as a modern tragedy, at times even realistic, and yet full of allegorical implications, fantastic scraps, symbolic reverberations such as to make the only text of its kind. The commercial failure of the book, in fact, made Melville a novelist who survived himself,

5.3 Poetry. If it is therefore prose, and in particular the novel, that gives life to the Renaissance, it is poetry, the song of the son of Manhattan ‘W. Whitman to complete it. Anticipating today’s concept of open work, between the first publication of Leaves of grass (1855) and the so-called deathbed edition of 1891-92, Whitman constantly reworked his masterpiece bringing it, amidst additions and revisions, from the 12 original poems that accompanied the dense preface, to the hundreds of passages of this great epic of modern America. Effectively concentrated in the metaphor of a title, which explicitly refers to the transcendentalist idea of ​​harmony of nature, is the critical judgment on this work of ‘democratic poetry’: leaves of grass, or even different poems of the same work, the same but distinct, united in a set of single recognizable individualities.

United States Literature - The American Renaissance

United States Non-fiction Literature

United States Non-fiction Literature

Extremely alert and alert non-fiction follows, and sometimes anticipates and conditions, the various stages of this desperate search in many ways. And this on several levels.

The 1950s had seen the problem of the individual brought to the fore in a society massified by a super-industrial revolution. These are classics of sociological and socio-economic criticism well known also in Italy. We will remember The lonely crowd, from 1950 (trad. It., The solitary crowd, Bologna 1956) and Individualism reconsidered from 1964, by D. Riesman; Childhood and society, from 1950 (it., Childhood and society, Rome 1966), which will then be followed by Identity: Youth and crisis, from 1968 (it., Youth and identity crisis, Rome 1974), by E. Erikson; Hidden persuasers(New York 1957; transl. It., The occult persuaders, Turin 1958), by V. Packard; The affluent society (therein 1958; trans. It., The opulent society, Milan 1963), by K. Galbraith.

In the 1960s, the Canadian M. McLuhan introduces the theme of the relationship between information and knowledge that will dominate much of the debates of the time with exasperations – and sometimes even distortions – of his well-known and hallucinatory vision of the media as an extension of man and his possibility of perception of reality (Understanding media, Toronto 1964; trad. it., The tools of communication, Milan 1967; Culture is our business, therein 1970). As for the post-Marxist “prophecy” of H. Marcuse (v.), It and its direct or mediated influence in the political and ideal debate of the 1960s, also in Italy, had a specific season of popularity.

Moreover, there are many key books that seem to mark and almost indicate or summarize the most important movements of ideas of the last fifteen years: if T. Leary’s book, The politics of ecstasy (New York 1968) defined, more or less ambiguously, the intellectual and cultural boundaries of the psychedelic experience, is still a non-fiction book, the now classic The feminine mistique by B. Friedan (trans. it., La mystic of femininity, Milan 1964), with the later and more militant Sexual politics K. Millet (New York, 1970; trans. trans., the politics, Milano 1971) and the female eunuch G. Greer (the female eunuch, Milan 1972), to represent the point of reference and departure for the feminist movement.

Then there are the essays by J. Cage, Silence, A year from monday, New York 1961 (trad. It., Silenzio, Antologia da Silence and A year from monday, Milan 1971), himself a well-known exponent of the artistic avant-garde in various fields (music, dance, theater) to offer, among other things, a meeting point – less paradoxical than it appears – between technological culture and Zen spirit. At the same time, a peculiarly American cultural and literary experience, such as those of HD Thoreau, will be re-evaluated and reused.

But think especially in The Autobiography of Malcolm X (posthumous, 1965; trans. Trans., The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Torino 1967), which became the world, lit by the tragedy of the leading Negro said Malcolm Little Malcolm X, the manifesto of Black power, to fully grasp the solidity of the bond that links, in recent years, the world of ideas and the form of its expression to that of action and cultural and political debate. The meaning of literature in recent years, therefore, cannot fail to coincide, also for this reason (that is, that of the effectiveness and rapidity of the dissemination of the ideas expressed also by the printed media as well as the consequent and relative game of editorial interests that determines it or accompanies), largely with non-fiction. It is no coincidence that the essay by one of the best-known authors of this period, N. Mailer’s White negro, appeared in Advertisement for myself (New York 1959; trans. It., Advertisement for myself, Milan 1962), with its hero of the American night, seems to be able to be taken as a focal point of “transition” between the fifties and the sixties.

Naturally, the most strictly critical non-fiction is the field in which the complex game of mirrors between creative literature and reflection on it, between ideological source and critical gloss, which seems to us so peculiarly characterize the period we are dealing with, is most manifested. What distinguishes, in the variety of addresses, this critical literature from that which preceded it, is above all the precise, militant attention to the cultural themes of the moment and the collocation, if not the identification, of the literary fact in this context. ‘scope. This approach, replacing that of the enduring and authoritative tradition of New criticism, does not remain without consequences in the field of American letters.

The myth, therefore, or the illusion, or the mystification of this critical militancy – depending on the point of view from which the battle will be considered – is that of a neo-avant-garde considered as an even ideological response to the crisis of values ​​in American society.. On the one hand, the postulation of the death of literature and criticism and the affirmation – or rhetoric – of the literature of silence, on the other hand, the opposition of the “new” literary “sensitivity to the imperialism of the hyper-rationality of the entire Western artistic tradition “.

The very term “new sensibility” is, indeed, the invention of S. Sontag, one of the most effective critics and with the years (Against interpretation and other essays, New York 1967; trans. Trans., Against Interpretation, Milan 1967), while “The literature of silence” gives its title to another influential critical book (I. Hassan, The literature of silence, New York 1967), and R. Poirer, former director of Partisan review, has instead suggested, as an alternative to a humanistic critique, the use of modules for verifying more or less objectivizable models of performance or performance, both literary and political, of individual authors (The performing self, New York 1971). It has been said that this highly informed, militant and intelligent criticism is also influential, indeed extremely influential.

It is not so easy to discern whether an essay like The Illiberal Imagination by R. Scholes, based on non-structurability and non-rationalizability, and therefore on the non-narrability of the present, limits itself to critically supporting the narrative relativism of a J. Barth or of a K. Vonnegut or becomes in some way an ideological source of this type of literature which renounces the omniscence of the narrator of tradition; or how much, on the other hand, Barth or T. Pynchon himself owe to Poirier’s concept of playful literature.

At this point it also becomes necessary, as well as being quite obvious, to take note of the echoes – or convergences – of many European trends or fashions, from the structuralism of C. Lévi-Strauss to the phenomenology of Heidegger, to the contributions of linguistics and psycholinguistics, from semiotics of R. Barthes to the criticism of the negativity of M. Blanchot, up to the anti-Balzacian echoes of Robbe-Grillet. However, in the USA it happens that the belief and insistence on the meaning of the futility of literary culture, on the rhetoric of the end, underlies what has rightly been called “the ambiguous radicalism of today’s American counterculture”. For this same fact they take on an entirely different significance in the cultural history of the 1960s and early 1970s,

Finally, the vitality of American critical literature in recent years is also represented in many other ways: if the whimsical critical militancy of L. Fiedler partially falls within the lines described above, the literary chronicle of an A. Kazin polemically opposes it. Nor can the importance of academic criticism be totally underestimated (just as the importance of the various university centers in the attitude, formation and explosion of important cultural and political movements cannot be underestimated). It is valid for everyone to name, even as exponents of the historical-cultural school of American studies, H. Nash Smith and L. Marx.

The critic who more than any other had followed and directed forty years of American literary life died in these years: E. Wilson (v.).

The poem. – Even in poetry the 1940s had cast on the following decade the shadow of the “restrictions of benevolent tyranny” of the New Criticism and of the presence of Eliot and Pound (especially in his imagist version). This presence, with and through W. Stevens and H. Crane, was reflected in the erudite, formal and compressed poetry of very different poets such as T. Roethke and R. Eberhart, K. Shapiro and S. Kunitz, R. Jarrell and R. Lowell or R. Wilbur. All of this had been especially noticeable on a linguistic level. It is still at the linguistic level that the first new sign of the poetry of the Sixties must certainly be grasped.

New – or old – indigenous sources are rediscovered, from W. Whitman to C. Sandburg, from the Pound of Cantos to WC Williams, and with them the idiomatic, immediate, discontinuous of that “hoarse American language” of the newspaper not transferred into poetic language with a simple naturalistic operation, but filtered through the complex mediation and historical elaboration of a cultural myth.

This exquisitely formal (or anti-formal, if you prefer) sign is flanked by ideological signs from the former which are anything but separate and distinct. In the first place, even in chronological terms, it is the search for a more genuinely historical dimension of consciousness which also finds expression in the punctuality of an almost stubborn reference to the current one (so much so that it has been observed that some poems born from the Vietnam War cannot already today read without footnotes). On the other hand, in apparent contradiction to this type of research, we tend to see poetry as an internal correlative of that intact and virgin continent that has so long dominated the American imagination. The “open” forms of this poem, these “new frontiers”,

Finally, the attempt to place the last resort of another American historical and literary myth in poetry and its own formal experimentation: that of a democracy in “celebrated and permanent revolution”. Not too paradoxically the same sources seem to feed apparently different researches. It will be Whitman, and his robust poetic inclusiveness to provide the key to poetry open to historical circumstances as well as to the compensatory poetry of a freedom and innocence – even spatial – now lost.

WC Williams, an influence so important in the poetry of the Sixties that it sometimes came against all disavowed evidence (see the case of L. Ferlinghetti), provides almost obsessive models of poetic diction and the pattern, also widely repeated, of linguistic collage, historical and cultural. His Paterson, moreover, is a poem not in the American language, but on theAmerican language, and another of his short poems provides the most complete metaphorical representation of a certain vision of American poetry of the Sixties: a poem that continually flourishes from its own failures just like the flower whose formal model takes effect when it undresses of its own petals. And through the metaphor, in fact, poetry also becomes a correlative of democracy in permanent revolution.

However, the indication of trends does not exempt, as will be seen, from further distinctions. The exceptionality, drama and variety of the contradictions that exploded in America in the Sixties directly affect the poetic research of those years which recorded continuous second thoughts, retreats, frustrations and renunciations, and nourished by these, no less than positive achievements.

It will suffice to think – at an extremely simple level – how the use of the “raucous everyday idiom”, which seems a generalized constant, is directly undermined by the semantic distortion operated by the public use of certain words through the mass media and as the poet can only be aware of it (“Language – wrote D. Levertov – they erode you as war erodes us”). Or it will suffice to think how the attempt at poetic internalization of historical processes has often clashed with an irresistible temptation to set aside historical memory as unsustainable at the level of individual conscience, to understand how – especially during and after the Vietnam War (” the war did not end for us even when peace was declared ”

It will therefore no longer be so easily reliable – in the poetry of these years – the now famous distinction of P. Roth of “pale faces” and “redskins” (in turn following the Apollonian and Dionysian Nietzschean) or, on the formal level, that of R. Lowell between “raw” and “cooked” verse, or Ferlinghetti between poetry of the ivory tower and poetry of the street. In fact, the mutations of taste that follow or accompany a crisis of collective consciousness of an entity never registered before, allow only in broad outline a distinction between schools and poetic tendencies. Within each group and each school, alongside the inevitable differentiation determined by individual talents, further differences, evolutions and involutions must be implied to be grasped at a chronological level.

All this variety finds a good representation, even historical, in the anthologies that had great merits in the poetic culture of the time. The now famous The New American Poetry by D. Allen (New York 1960) stands as a sort of manifesto of “open poetry” (from C. Olson to the Dominican Brother Antoninus, from R. Duncan to D. Levertov, R. Creeley or A. Ginsberg), somehow breaking with everything that had been anthologized up to that point. More eclectic are the anthologies from the late 1960s (such as Naked poetry by S. Berg and R. Mezey from 1969, or Possibilities of poetryby R. Kostelanetz of 1970). They make room, without particular taste discrimination, for the various schools that have gradually established themselves: the Black Mountain group with Olson and Creeley, the New York group with J. Ashbery and K. Koch, the Beats by Ginsberg and Corso, or the so-called “San Francisco Renaissance” school by R. Duncan and L. Ferlinghetti. With the same catholicity of choice these anthologies, in fact, also document and codify the numerous exchanges that took place between the various groups.

Let’s start with the first, in chronological order, of these schools, that is the one grouped around Black Mountain College in North Carolina and the magazine of the same name published there. The group has its own precise historical location which coincides precisely with D. Allen’s anthology of 1960 in which C. Olson’s essay-manifesto reappears (Projective verse), together rector of the Experimental College from 1951 to 1956 and central figure of the group. With this publication what had been produced and expressed in the quite exceptional climate of a group of creative talents (which alongside poets such as the aforementioned Duncan and Creeley, sees musicians such as J. Cage or D. Tudor, choreographers such as M. Cunningham, architects like Buckminster Fuller), since the early 1950s, emerged from the semi-clandestine nature of private and limited editions to acquire national weight and reach.

Projective verse, in apparent contrast with the highly refined literary and cultural baggage of its author and his followers, postulated in a provocatively red style the “form as pure extension of the content” and, above all, the technical necessity for the poet to recover – a metric and rhythmic level – “the full power of the human voice”. Olson’s was certainly seminal work, whose influence is not limited to the group that worked with Olson at Black Mountain or to the poets, who were already very different themselves, who joined it from the outside, such as D. Levertov or P. Blackburn, but it extends far beyond motivating a very wide range of formal and stylistic researches.

The same Beat group of J. Kerouac, A. Ginsberg, G. Corso and W. Burroughs that was born in New York and then moved, at first occasionally and then more permanently, to San Francisco, began to publish their versions in the Black Mountain Review of “open style” using the same poetic sources (from Whitman to Williams) and to express the sense of an experience quite distinct from that of Olson and his parents, in which sex, violence and drugs dominate. Indeed, it seems paradoxical that the poet beatUsing obscene and blasphemous language as necessary for his own revolt, he thus recovered the rhetoric he had thought to undress with his choice of poetic diction. In truth, some subsequent mystical or ecological escapes of the beats might have already been able to grasp the ideology of this formal choice. Towards the end of the 1950s the cultural and geographical crossroads of the many forms of “open poetry” thus became, it has been said, San Francisco. The sheets and magazines that are published there, its small publishing houses (City Light Booksm Corinth, Jargon, Tiber, Totem, Auerha, etc.) together with the most well-known and solid publishing houses of the East, such as Grove Press or New Directions,

In a mixture of new bohemia and anti-academic manifesto, what will be called the San Francisco Renaissance develops and takes place. Brother Antoninus will be part of it in his personal and incandescent synthesis of W. Whitman and GM Hopkins, many of the beat poets, and above all R. Duncan and L. Ferlinghetti. The first, associated, as we have seen, with the Black Mountain group, uses a wide range of different cultural experiences, in particular musical (Strawinsky, Schönberg or Satie) and mythical-fable in a poem that, despite the theoretical adhesion in the “projective direction”, it remains extremely controlled, dense and sometimes manneristic. As for the second, it is in his bookshop and around his publishing house (City Light) that the most important poetic phenomena emerge.

Ferlinghetti’s poetry accentuates and enhances those “oral” qualities of poetry that American literature had, sometimes in vain, pursued as a distinctive and autochthonous element in the last twenty years (especially in WC Williams), bending them to the vivid, satirical and vehement expression of a precise political and cultural commitment, of the anger and impotence that sometimes accompanies it. However, the emergence of the attraction pole on the west coast does not completely overshadow the great centers of the East, traditionally the heart of the American artistic avant-garde and, in particular, New York. Three young Harvardians, K. Koch, F. O’Hara and J. Ashbery, will converge in New York to give life to a different experience of “open poetry”, an experience that does not prescind from the surrealist contribution.

Ironic, desecrating, hyper-refined, the poetry of the New York group is consciously placed in a more exquisitely cosmopolitan context and area than those in which the other groups we have mentioned move and with which also contacts and exchanges over the years they have been many.

These are the three groups that best seemed to embody the image of poetry in recent years. Alongside them, some poets who – even in their later works – continue with excellence a tradition of formalism quite close to the experiences of the 1950s. For example, D. Schwartz, editor of Partisan Review, died in 1966, leaving in the American literary world the regret for the disappearance of a great poetic personality that never seemed fully expressed, and the vivid memory of a desperate and disturbing human personality.. In addition to Summer Knowledge of 1959, remains in testimoniarcelo a beautiful anthology of criticism published posthumously, in 1970, Selected Essays of D. Schwartz.

The personality of another poet who died in recent years, R. Jarrell, with his The woman at the Washington zoo in 1960 and The lost world in 1965, is less controversial but still noteworthy. by Jarrell (Complete poems, New York 1970) which very well epitomizes a whole poetic era, precisely the one represented by a famous anthological collection edited by Jarrell himself in the 1950s, with the significant title of Poetry and the age (New York 1953; trans. it., The poetry of an era, Parma 1956).

Finally, in 1963 T. Roethke, poet of the “joyful condition” and “pure desperation”, with a tortured sensitivity, disappears. The difficult and romantic relationship between the self and the world is expressed by Roethke in the form of interior monologues, well inserted in the American tradition, with the help of an elliptical, colloquial diction, full of echoes and verbal associations and cultural and a vivid capacity for irony and humor. The far field, the poetry collection that came out in 1964, well represents the last phase of Roethke’s poetic work.

Finally, and for various reasons, we have left R. Lowell, the most complex and complete, without any doubt and by general acclamation, post-war poetic personality, who passed away, still relatively young, in 1977. In recent years, since 1960 of the beautiful Life studies onwards, Lowell’s “manner” and his own poetic contents change in a rather remarkable form. From the cultured, complexly structured versification of Land of unlikeness (1944) and Lord Weary’s castle(1946), we pass to a flat poetic diction, almost prosastic and yet subtly controlled in its calmness. From the tormented and dark hope of contemporary redemption to the equally tormented conversion to Catholicism, to the both real and metaphorical introduction of the anguish of mental illness in her “confession” poem., An introduction that somehow manages to be itself. calm. Of this same poetic language, which reaches the essentiality of its clarity through a very rare formal elaboration, Lowell will use to face and even groped to organize and emotionally dominate the chaos and the political and moral senselessness of the contemporary, from the Vietnam War. to the tough racial riots in Newark, from the deaths of Che Guevara, ML King, R. Kennedy to the French May. It will be enough to nameFor the union dead (1964), Near the Ocean of 1967, and that Notebook: 1967 – 68 (1969) model of the so-called “confessional poetry” of the sixties and seventies.

United States Non-fiction Literature

United States Criminal Law

United States Criminal Law

When the United States became independent, English criminal law generally prevailed in all states. Features of this were:

  1. there was no code, nor a list established by law, of punishable offenses, with the relative penalty. There was, however, a certain number of ” common law crimes “, each distinguished by a special name (mostly of French origin: arson “ fire”; larceny “theft”, etc.) and for each of them the punishment and the details of the crime were made to depend on the theory adopted about the relations between the colonies and the parliament. In addition, each colony had a certain number of minor offenses, configured by colonial and state legislation, after obtaining independence;
  2. all “common law crimes” were divided into two categories (of feudal and traditional origin): in “felonies” (felonies) and in “misdemeanors” (misdemeanors); and in England, at the time of the revolution, all crimes of the first kind – calculated from some to 220, but considering the subspecies of the same crime as different figures – were subjected to the death penalty. However, it does not seem that in practice such severity was applied in the colonies;
  3. there was no public prosecution, although at times some official, such as the attorney general, took the initiative in the proceedings, as in England; but as a rule criminal trials, like civil ones, were privately initiated;
  4. there was no appeal from the criminal sentences, but only the appeal to the crown by grace.

The tendency to reform criminal law immediately took hold in American law. In the United States the influence of Bentham – and, through him, of Montesquieu and Beccaria – was stronger than in England; and the death penalty had already been practically abolished except for the most serious crimes and the request for a penal code, that is, a written law that defined the crimes and fixed their penalties, became more and more insistent. In 1805 Louisiana enacted a comprehensive written criminal law, which named and defined certain offenses, but with no intention of ignoring those excluded. In 1821, Edward Livingston was commissioned to prepare a penal code and he proposed a general one for the United States. His project – one of the first modern criminal codes, based on natural law doctrines derived from Bentham and Beccaria – was much discussed and admired, but not applied by either Louisiana or any other state. However, the impulse he gave was not in vain, and resulted in the formation of penal codes for all states.

Thus the nulla poena sine lege principle has become fundamental in the United States. The doctrine of common law crimes has been repudiated by American courts since 1813 and often expressly abolished by various written laws. And even without this, it is universally believed that the execution and definition of offenses in written laws are exclusive; of course, many crimes are not defined in the codes, but in particular laws. Furthermore, if the law does not establish the penalty for the prohibited act, there can be no punishment. To avoid involuntary omissions, most of the codes establish that, in the absence of a specific penalty, the maximum penalty established for misdemeanors is imposed: usually, one year in prison.

The abandonment of the death penalty – except for the most serious crimes – was a characteristic of colonial criminal law; immediately after the revolution, this principle entered the laws of the states; in 1801 in New York the death penalty was retained only for crimes against state security (including under the generic name of treason, literally or treason “) and for murder. This is still the situation today in most But the penalty established in 1801 for other very serious crimes, for example, robbery and fire, is also a penalty that would now be called capital, that is, imprisonment for life.

Under the humanitarian impulse, represented for Americans above all by Bentham, the tendency was to reduce the sentence for most of the felonies and to graduate the sentence in a way corresponding to the hatefulness of the crime. It was the traditional conception of rationalism that, with great accuracy, this result could be obtained; and certainly this system represented a progress, as it broke the severe and inflexible system that punished all the felonies in the same way, but it too lacked flexibility, as it punished all those guilty of the same crime in the same way. But at the end of the century. XIX the doctrines of the Italian anthropological school were discussed a lot in the United States and a vast reform movement tried to apply the doctrine of the individualization of punishment. In many states there were laws that left the sentence indefinite and allowed conditional sentence (parole), despite some popular opposition, which however failed to stop this movement.

However, there have been sporadic attempts to increase the severity of the laws in certain cases. One of the “Baumes laws” (named after CH Baumes; 1926) of New York, copied from other states, provides for life imprisonment for the third (or fourth; see EncyclBritannica, 14th ed., III, p. 227) conviction for felon. Similarly, in certain states the death penalty has been extended to certain other crimes, especially where public sentiment regarded them with particular horror and terror: thus in the southern states fire and rape are often considered capital crimes (rape), as well as in other states the rat in person, mainly for the purpose of extortion (kidnapping).

The prevailing tendency in some countries of the European continent to invest the judge with wide discretionary powers in determining whether and to what extent an action is punishable, has found little echo in United States legislation.

The spirit that animated the first reformers of the penal laws derived not only from a doctrinary humanitarianism, but also from the severity and cruelty of the norms of common law. This severity prompted the judges to find loopholes for the accused during the trial. In addition, appeals in criminal cases were made possible and these appeals in a relatively large number of trials overturned convictions for purely technical reasons.

Another step towards the protection of the accused was the general introduction of the right to legal aid. The common law originally did not allow this in the processes for felony and “treason.” For the latter, the norm was changed after 1688, but for the first only in the middle of the century. XIX. But in the United States the right to be assisted by a lawyer at every stage of the proceedings was accorded to the accused from the outset.

All of these provisions could lend themselves to abuses which legislation has recently tried to put an end to.

Even the criminal procedure soon developed in a sense that differentiated it from the English one. As has been said, in England the norm was that the accusation should be brought by a private individual, usually the injured person. The continental method of submitting all criminal proceedings to the direction of a public official was regarded with favor in the United States from the earliest times. In New York, a district attorney was created by the laws of 1801 to direct the criminal proceedings in a group of counties; the district attorney was a representative of the attorney general, the highest official of the state judicial administration. This office spread throughout the United States and became as characteristic of the county as that of the sheriff. He had the exclusive authority to initiate criminal proceedings and also some vigilance over the indictment juries and the accusations. More recently, laws have been passed that accentuate the district attorney’s accountability to the governor or attorney general and have had the desired effect of easing the local limitations of the office somewhat.

In a number of states there is a public advocate for the poor accused. Where this office does not exist, it is the court that appoints an official defender, who is obliged, for professional duty, to lend himself free of charge.

The allegations are still the work of a special jury (Grand Jury) as it has long been in England. But it works on the advice of the district attorney, and seldom deviates from it. With laws multiplied after the second half of the century. XIX an even older method has been restored, the information system, whereby the district attorney can in many cases proceed without resorting to formal prosecution.

In ordinary procedure, the rules on evidence are mostly the same as in civil trials. It is generally stated as a norm that proof of righteousness must be given “beyond reasonable doubt”. This sentence is capable of being interpreted with great latitude and has not prevented a certain number of painful judicial errors. Research by Thayer and others has shown that the famous “presumption of innocence” that laws and judgments often claim to be a fundamental feature of American law is little more than a symbolic phrase.

But a notable feature of the American procedure is a special development of the double jeopardy (“double risk”). In common law, the canonical norm ne bis in idem gave rise to the exceptions autrefois acquit and autrefois convict. This principle was incorporated in the Bill of Rights of the various constitutions and is generally expressed in the prohibition of a “double judgment for the same transgression”. A person acquitted once cannot therefore be indicted again for the same crime and this necessarily prevents the state from appealing. Instead the condemned person can appeal, because that norm is dictated in his favor and therefore he can renounce it. In trials that end with capital punishments, appeals are automatic, and very frequent in others as well. Despite popular beliefs to the contrary, appeals are now rarely successful.

In any case, the frequent use of appeals, such as the excessive technicality of the law of evidence, has contributed a lot to the slowness of the procedure which is a real flaw in American criminal justice. This has often been tried to remedy. The common practice in the century. XIX, to grant the annulment of the sentence for any mistake committed, has been modified by law and the Courts of Appeal now have as a rule not to annul unless it is clear that without precisely that error the verdict would have been acquittal..

Criminal law is now actively concerned with improving police organization and punishment methods. With all the deficiencies of the jury system and the law of evidence, the real difficulty for the good administration of justice is in these instruments rather than in the courts and the legislation to come will probably be all directed towards obtaining improvements in these matters.

United States Criminal Law

Costa Rica – World of Birds

Costa Rica – World of Birds

When the land bridge between North and South America formed millions of years ago, the animal world literally exploded. Probably no other country in the world has such a high biodiversity in such a small area as the Central American Costa Rica. In addition to over a hundred different species of amphibians and reptiles, the world of birds is certainly one of the most flashy and colorful. In Costa Rica you experience a real bombardment of colorful feathers, huge super beaks and grandiose chants.
Reason enough for us, here in our top 10 ranking, to introduce our favorite birds.

Costa Rica’s birds – 10th place: Sulfur mask tyrant

No sooner have you arrived in Costa Rica than you are greeted by the distinctive song of the sulfur masked tyrant. In English it was named after its reputation that makes it unmistakable: Kiskadee.
If you want to watch the bird, you should search the power lines. The Kiskadee also likes to poke fruit from the plate if he feels he is not being watched.

Costa Rica’s birds – # 9: Chachalaca

The most colorful representatives of the Costa Rican birds did not make it to number nine, but certainly the most entertaining ones. Long before you can see them, their shrill calls indicate their existence. When the sociable hens emerge from the undergrowth, you think you are in Jurassic Park. They look like little Archeopteryx and mostly the brown birds have just nonsense on their minds. Therefore, the Chachalacas, as they are also called, deserve to be in 9th position.

Costa Rica’s birds – 8th place: Naschvogel

Definitely one of the most dazzling phenomena that Costa Rica’s tropics have to offer are the birds of sweet tooth. With their hopelessly lavish color scheme, the small, colorful birds definitely not only cast a spell on ornithologists. Many nature enthusiasts discovered their love for ornithology through them. Our blue miracle: A worthy rank 8.

Costa Rica’s birds – 7th place: frigate bird

We briefly leave the dense forests and go to the coast of Costa Rica. Because this is where our next favorite bird is native: the frigate bird. Its long, pointed wings make it unmistakable. Although it feeds exclusively on fish, the frigate bird cannot swim. Because he specializes in chasing other seabirds until they choke the fish out for them. This gave the extremely fast and agile birds the name “pirates of the skies”. And something else special: During courtship time, the males inflate their red throat pouch, which can then easily reach the size of a football.

Costa Rica’s birds – 6th place: Montezuma-fronted bird

The Montezuma- fronted bird, or Oropendula, made it to our number 6. Like many other birds, you hear the oropendula before you see it. Its exotic and mystical sounding calls provide that real jungle feeling. It is always worth looking for the Montezuma-fronted bird, because in addition to its beautiful appearance, its courtship behavior is extremely interesting: While the male calls, he holds on to the branch and plopps down like a wet sack. Usually the bird repeats the whole thing about ten times. Really very extraordinary and therefore our deserved number 6.

Costa Rica’s birds – 5th place: Macaw

No other animal embodies more Caribbean and tropical feeling than the macaw. Hardly any pirate film can do without the colorful, feathered character animal. If you want to see two different species of macaws in the wild, Costa Rica is the place for you. Almost 30 years ago on the verge of extinction, the strict protection of these birds and various reintroduction programs have paid off. Today more and more of the colorful birds are flying around. On the Pacific coast, where many almond trees grow, the scarlet macaws are easy to see. The rarer Great Soldier Macaws are at home further inland.

Costa Rica’s birds – 4th place: harpy

Sharp claws, a head of feathers and the dream of every ornithologist: the harpy ! It is one of the largest and strongest birds of prey in the world. His hunting grounds are the dense forests, and sloths and monkeys are the main prey. He can spot them from a great distance before whizzing through the dense branches as fast as an arrow and precisely to kill them. The harpy lives very hidden, even some local guides have never seen the animal. Nevertheless: In the Manuel Antonio National Park the sightings are increasing. So keep your eyes open.

Costa Rica’s birds – 3rd place: Toucan

With its huge beak and colorful plumage, the toucan is one of the stars in the Costa Rican rainforest. The birds come in different types. The most beautiful of the toucans is probably the fishing toucan, or rainbow toucan. From yellow to green and red to blue – the large-billed bird calls all colors its own. In addition to the provocative appearance, the calls of the toucans are also unmistakable. There is little better than watching the colorful hustle and bustle of the toucans over a cup of coffee in the morning as they feast on fruit and other delicacies.

Costa Rica’s birds – 2nd place: Quetzal

The well-deserved silver medal in our top ten of Costa Rica’s birds goes to the Quetzal. The home of the Quetzal are the cloud forests of Costa Rica, where it usually leads a life in secrecy. In the morning, when it flies a little deeper into the valley, where wild avocado trees grow, you have a good chance of seeing the colorful bird. During courtship the male gets a green tail over a meter long. Its belly is bright red and the beak shines a wonderful yellow. The quetzal : a mystical bird that has to be seen!

Costa Rica’s birds – 1st place: hummingbird

The gold medal of the most beautiful birds in Costa Rica, deserves the shining jewels of the rainforest. No other bird is more fascinating in so many ways than the colorful hummingbird. The little bird’s heart beats up to 500 times per minute. The hummingbird’s special wingbeat allows it to even fly backwards. 54 different species of hummingbirds live in Costa Rica. Most of the lively birds can be found in the highlands. It is always worthwhile to sit down next to a flowering bush and watch the colorful hustle and bustle of the little birds. When the sun shines, their brightly colored feathers shine in all sorts of colors. Definitely our winners!

Of course, we don’t want to ignore the rest of the approximately 900 bird species that Costa Rica has to offer. In no other comparable country live more different birds. On our trips, you can discover the colorful jewels of the rainforest. Our guides are looking forward to showing you.

Costa Rica - World of Birds

Hong Kong Overview

Hong Kong Overview

The Special Administrative Region comprises the island of Hong Kong (79.99 km 2) with the capital Victoria, the Kowloon peninsula and the New Territories with the hinterland of Kowloon as well as around 240 mostly uninhabited secondary islands. Hong Kong is the leading trade and financial center in Southeast Asia.

History: The island of Hong Kong became a British crown colony in 1842, which was expanded to include Kowloon in 1860 and the New Territories and numerous small islands in 1898 by a lease agreement (for a period of 99 years). According to an agreement signed in 1984, Great Britain returned the colony to the People’s Republic of China in 1997. According to this agreement, Hong Kong is to maintain its social and economic system and remain largely autonomous for a transition period of 50 years.

Politically, Hong Kong has had ever closer ties to mainland China since 1997. The transport links between the island and the mainland have been improved through infrastructure projects. At the same time, in 2014 the “umbrella movement” called for more democracy and free elections for Hong Kong. In the summer of 2019, young Hong Kong residents in particular protested against a bill that China had passed. People demanded freedom of expression and the rule of law. In order to attract media attention to their cause, they occupied the Hong Kong International Airport, among other places. Hong Kong is an economically important international financial center for China. China wants to end the protests as soon as possible.

According to shoppingpicks, the city comprises the island of Hong Kong, which is connected to the mainland by tunnels , the Kowloon peninsula and the New Territories with the hinterland of Kowloon, the island of Lantau and around 260 largely uninhabited islands. The area of ​​Hong Kong and especially the island of Lantau has been expanded significantly through constant land reclamation. Official languages: Chinese and English. Currency: 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK $) = 100 cents (c). Time zone: CET + 7 hours.


Located on the coast of the South China Sea, Hong Kong, a continuation of the South China mountainous country, is predominantly mountainous, with heights up to 958 m above sea level (Taimo Shan in the New Territories; Lantau Peak on Lantau Island at 934 m above sea level and Victoria Peak on Hong Kong Island at 551 m above sea level). The heavily booked, rocky (especially granite) coasts are difficult to develop for settlements. The originally forested mountains are now grassland and wasteland with poor pine vegetation. On the island of Hong Kong there is evergreen deciduous forest in places (through reforestation). The summer is tropical and humid, the winter sunny and mostly mild, the spring mostly very humid and foggy. Summer and autumn typhoons with heavy downpours are not uncommon.

Population and Religion


95% of the population are Chinese. The influx of refugees from China was particularly large between 1945 and 1950. Illegal immigration continued later. In 1980, effective measures were taken to curb entry and immigration into overpopulated Hong Kong. The average population density of 6,549 people per km 2 is significantly exceeded in metropolitan areas as large parts of Hong Kong are uninhabitable.


The Constitution (Article 32) guarantees the residents of Hong Kong the freedom of religion, places religious activities in the area of ​​general public life under their protection and guarantees (Article 137) the religious communities the establishment and maintenance of their own schools. About two thirds of the population profess Daoism and Buddhism and maintain the traditions of the Chinese folk religions. Half of the roughly 10% Christians belong to the Catholic Church (Diocese of Hong Kong; Suffragan diocese of Canton [currently vacant]) and – with the exception of the few Orthodox Christians – Protestant churches and communities (around fifty in total; especially Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists, Presbyterians, Lutherans) and the Anglican Church. The Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong is also the seat of the Anglican Church of the Province of East Asia. Since 1996, Hong Kong has also been the seat of the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan for Hong Kong and Southeast Asia. Religious minorities are made up of Muslims (around 220,000), Hindus (around 40,000), Sikhs (around 10,000) and Jews (around 2,000). The starting point of the Jewish community (founded in 1857; opening of the first synagogue in 1900, today four synagogues) was the immigration of Jews (predominantly of Iraqi and Indian origin) to Hong Kong, which began in 1842.

Hong Kong Overview

History of APEC

History of APEC

The then Prime Minister of Australia Bob Hawke took the initiative to form APEC. In 1989, the first ministerial meeting was held in Canberra, Australia. The six then ASEAN countries (see separate chapter on ASEAN) attended the meeting, as did the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand and Australia.

At the opening speech, Hawke explained with the cape aimed at the European Union, the EU, that one reason for the formation of APEC was to prevent the world from being divided into “defensive trade blocs”. That APEC does not intend to become a new protectionist EU, the members have clarified on several occasions since then.

The need to find more efficient and organized forms of the sharp increase in trade between North America and East Asia over the past two decades drove the organization’s formation. For the United States, it was important to try to remedy the growing deficit in trade, mainly with China and Japan. It also sought to reach agreement on the ongoing negotiations on freer world trade within the Uruguay Round of the GATT (the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which was replaced in 1995 by the World Trade Organization, WTO). It was hoped that the tough negotiations would be facilitated if the Pacific countries agreed on a common line.

The United States argued early on to link the major Asian economies – China, Taiwan and Hong Kong – to the organization and give it a firmer shape. However, the ASEAN countries were skeptical of attempts to strengthen APEC; they were partly afraid of undermining ASEAN’s position in the region, and partly worried about the idea that the USA would further consolidate its influence.

In an attempt to find a counterpoint to American influence, Malaysia in 1991 took the initiative to form a new economic organization without the United States as well as Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The United States considered that the initiative threatened to split APEC and therefore launched an intensive counter-campaign in which both Japan and South Korea were exposed to strong pressure not to participate. An East Asian Economic Caucus was nevertheless formed in 1994, but it did not become the significant force that Malaysia had envisioned, but stayed with a group within APEC.

When APEC members eventually agreed to allow new members, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan joined the organization. The ministerial meeting in the South Korean capital, Seoul, in 1991 was attended by the three new members. However, Taiwan and Hong Kong (then another British crown colony, returned to China in 1997) did not have the same status as China, which was a prerequisite for the Chinese to approve their presence. Taiwan joins APEC under the name Chinese Taipei, the name of the island in China, and was also only given the right to send lower-ranking officials to APEC ministerial meetings. In 1993, Mexico and Papua New Guinea became members of APEC and in 1994 the membership was further expanded when Chile was also adopted. In 1998, Peru, Russia and Vietnam were also admitted to APEC.

According to shoppingpicks, APEC gained a firmer structure through the decision to set up a permanent secretariat at the 1992 ministerial meeting in Bangkok. However, plans for free trade cooperation progressed at a slower pace. At the Seattle meeting, many of the Asian countries were hesitant about the expert group’s proposal to introduce a free trade area in the Pacific region as early as 1996. But they agreed on a more general wording in which they expressed their desire to work for freer trade in the region. At the 1994 summit in Bogor, Indonesia, the APEC countries decided to form a free trade area by 2020; the more industrialized countries would have liberalized their trade as early as 2010.

At the Osaka ministerial meeting in Japan in 1995, the APEC countries took another step towards a free trade zone after agreeing on an action plan for trade liberalization. However, the negotiations stalled for a long time because the countries had different views, mainly in the field of agriculture. Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan were reluctant to allow foreign competition into their agricultural markets while large exporters of agricultural products – such as Australia, the United States, Canada and New Zealand – refused to allow exemptions. The lock-in only eased after a compromise was reached, which in short was based on the countries liberalizing at their own pace until a certain end date. However, at the Philippines’ ministerial meeting in November 1996, each member could present an individual action plan.

At the Manila Summit in November 1996, the Ministers of Economy decided that tariffs and other barriers to trade in information technology would be removed from the year 2000. When the Ministers met the following year in Vancouver, Canada, the major topic of discussion was the economic and financial crisis. It was also agreed to speed up the liberalization of trade on a voluntary basis, so-called Early voluntary sectoral liberalization, EVSL, in certain areas, including the fisheries sector, wood products, medical equipment, toys.

At the meeting in the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur the following year, Japan refused to agree to reduced tariffs in the forest and fisheries sectors, which caused negotiations on reduced tariffs in the various EVSL areas to stall. It ended with the APEC members handing over the customs negotiations to the World Trade Organization, WTO. The work within the EVSL project was instead concentrated on reducing other types of barriers to trade as well as on economic and technical cooperation.

History of APEC

The 10 most famous sights in New York

The 10 most famous sights in New York

There is a lot to discover in the city that never sleeps. If you don’t have time to see everything, you can limit yourself to the 10 most famous sights:

  1. New York’s Times Square

Right in the heart of Manhattan’s Broadway is the square named after the famous New York Times newspaper. Imposing neon signs and pure life attract tourists here in droves every day. In addition to the dazzling scenery, Times Square also offers countless leisure activities.

  1. The Empire State Building

New York’s second tallest building (after the One World Trade Center) and one of the tallest in the world was built between 1930 and 1931. From the upper viewing platform, it offers its visitors an unforgettable view of the entire Big Apple.

  1. The Rockefeller Center

The observation deck of the Rockefeller Center – the so-called Top of the Rock – in Manhattan also offers an excellent view of the city, although it is only the 14th tallest building in New York. The impressive building complex has been built and continuously expanded since the 1920s.

  1. The Brooklyn Bridge

This New York landmark connects the Manhattan and Brooklyn neighborhoods and is considered one of the most famous bridges in the world. In fact, it was built in 1883, making it one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States.

  1. The One World Trade Center

The tallest building in the United States and the fourth tallest in the world today houses mostly offices. It was built between 2006 and 2014 on Ground Zero, the site where the original World Trade Center was destroyed in 2001.

  1. Central Park

Central Park, known from film and television in Manhattan, is the largest park in the city. In the midst of the hustle and bustle, it offers an oasis of peace and nature and is therefore often referred to by the New Yorkers as the “lung of the city”.

  1. Staten Island Ferry

The ferry ride from Manhattan to Staten Island is free – and it offers every visitor to the city a unique view of what is probably the most famous skyline in the world.

  1. Wall Street

A visit, maybe even a tour, through this well-known absolute center of power is definitely worth it. A large part of all important financial transactions in the world are carried out here.

  1. Grand Central Station

The Manhattan train station was inaugurated in 1913. Since then it has been the largest train station in the world. A visit to this building, which can be seen in countless films and series, is always worthwhile.

  1. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Located in the middle of famous Fifth Avenue is the largest museum in the United States. Over three million works of art from really all eras and corners of the world can be admired here.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Shopping and Eating in Washington DC

Shopping and Eating in Washington DC

According to AbbreviationFinder, Washington DC is one of the largest cities in the country of United States.

Shopping in Washington DC

Washington DC’s premier shopping district is located in the northwest, more specifically in Georgetown. There are shops around M Street and Wisconsin Avenue, scattered on both sides of the many pedestrian streets. In addition to expensive designer outlets such as Versace, Gucci and Dior and small specialist stores, you will also find several large shopping centers with all the well-known store chains. Americans love their malls, and they are, like most things in the United States, gigantic.


You might expect to find most and largest stores in Downtown and around the National Mall, but here are mostly just souvenir shops. In contrast, the city has an exceptionally good selection of these, from the tourist shops with myriad variants of t-shirts, cups and bags with a picture of the Capitol and White House and rubber masks by the presidents, to the slightly more exclusive gift shops most museums have their areas.

But there are some exceptions. Just east of the White House, at 1201 G Street NW, is the branch of one of America’s largest department stores, Macy’s. In the quarter below, you’ll find the small National Place shopping center at 1331 Pennsylvania Avenue, and close by, at 529 14th Street, is the city branch of Filene’s Basement. This is a Boston-based concept with a large selection of surplus brand clothing, where you can find designer products or wedding dresses at a fraction of the price. Both clothes and shoes for men, women and children.

At Capitol Hill, take a look at Union Station, which is not only a train station, but also a large and modern indoor shopping center, with hundreds of shops, restaurants, eateries and a cinema complex. If you are a stamp collector, just head to the National Postal Museum, which will be a treasure trove for avid philatelists.

A block away from Union Station is several more bohemian Eastern Market, which has its roots back to 1873. South Hall still sells fresh vegetables, fish and shellfish, fruits and flowers, dairy products and meats, while outdoor arts and crafts are organized on weekends. craft fair on Saturdays and flea market on Sundays.

Most major shops and shopping centers are open from 1000 to 2000 or 2100 on all weekdays, and from 1100 to 1800 on Sundays.

Washington DC, the capital of USA described on Countryaah has a 5.75% sales tax plus all items when you pay. But there is no effective system for refunding this tax upon departure.

Eating in Washington

Food in Washington DC

Washington DC residents are among the youngest and most buoyant in the United States, and few eat at a restaurant more often than them. And the selection matches demand, here it is teeming with eateries in all price ranges with kitchens from all over the world. If you want to eat Vietnamese, Peruvian, Italian, Indian, Polish, Lebanese or Argentine, then you can find it in Washington DC.

Most restaurants are in the area around Dupont Circle, Georgetown and Adams Morgan. In recent years, suburban Alexandria, which is actually located in Virginia and not in DC, has also established itself as a reputable restaurant area. Washington DC residents are increasingly heading south to test out some of Alexandria’s increasingly trendy eateries.

Here is a list of the top ten restaurants in Washington DC!

As of this writing, this list is topped by the elegant French restaurant Michel Richard Citronelle, located in the Latham Hotel at 3000 M Street NW, Georgetown. It’s not cheap, but here your food is made by one of the country’s most renowned managers, and the service is probably always outstanding ! Reservation is required.

Georgetown’s premier restaurant streets are M Street and Wisconsin Avenue. One of the classic eateries here is the seafood restaurant Sequoia, which also has an outdoor terrace overlooking the Potomac River.

More affordable and centrally located is the modern Asian restaurant TenPenh, which is named after the address on the corner of Tenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. We were very pleased with our food and really enjoyed the room, which is decorated with objects and art from China and Thailand.

Important about nightlife and restaurants in the US and Washington

Don’t forget that waiters and waiters, etc. work on tip-based pay, and 15% of the bill is a minimum you should consider if the service has been good. Anything below this will probably lead to dissatisfied murmurings about stingers. If you are very satisfied with the service, you should add 20-25%.

Despite Monty Python forever and ever giving American beer a reputation for being thin and tasteless, (“Like making love in a canoe; it’s f ****** close to water…..”) You have a lot of tasty in store for the capital’s pubs. Here you will find an overview of the district’s breweries, pubs and beer specialists.

Shopping and Eating in San Francisco, USA

Shopping and Eating in San Francisco, USA

According to AbbreviationFinder, San Francisco is one of the largest cities in the country of USA.

Shopping in San Francisco

In San Francisco you have a very good selection of all kinds of goods, much because of the great ethnic variety of the city’s population.

San Francisco’s obvious shopping hub is Union Square and the surrounding area. Here are all the major chains represented, including Macy’s, Nordstrom, Neiman-Marcus, Cartier, Bloomingdales and Saks Fifth Avenue. Here are also the exclusive stores (or boutiques) for designers such as Dior and Armani. In the side streets you will find many galleries and art outlets.

One of the tourists’ favorite places for shopping is Cannery, a large brick building with a past as a canned factory. Here are souvenir and gift shops such as sells Native American handicraft, crystals and jewelry, as well as bars and eateries. The Cannery is located on Del Monte Square at the foot of Columbus Street.

At Pier 39 on Fisherman’s Wharf, there are over 110 stores selling everything a tourist would like to buy. If you had tried to open a store in Norway that only sells dragons, knives, game boxes, refrigerator magnets, socks or Russian dolls, you would probably go bankrupt immediately, but in the US everything goes well. There is also a Disney Store and close by you will find The Anchorage with more than 50 specialty shops and restaurants.

Americans are good at making big centers where you can spend all day shopping, eating, drinking, maybe bowling or going to the movies. One such is the Embarcadero Center, which spans six blocks. Located between Union Square and the sea, on Battery and Drumm Street, it has over 125 shops and eateries.

If you want to try something other than modern shopping centers with air conditioning and easy listening music on the speakers, you can head to the Castro district, but which is definitely not named after Cuba’s president. Among the steep streets and old houses painted in bright colors are many special shops, bookshops, galleries and bars.

Most shops are open between 1000 and 1900 every day except Sundays. Some of the largest department stores close even later and also have Sundays open.

Please note that a 8.25% sales tax is added on when you pay, but on larger purchases you can in many cases be refunded at the airport when you leave California.

Eating in San Francisco

Food in San Francisco, USA

Due to the ethnic diversity of San Francisco, there are also many different restaurants here. One of America’s largest Chinatowns offers hundreds of genuinely Chinese eateries, and in the area of ​​North Beach it is teeming with Italian restaurants. Try the Mission district for a good selection of inexpensive Mexican eateries. You will also find many excellent Japanese, Vietnamese and Thai restaurants here.

Everything is big in the United States, and this is especially true of the positions you get served in most restaurants. Also, Americans love fast food restaurants. In San Francisco, of course, you meet all the fast-food chains you’ve heard of, and probably some more. So if hamburgers, finger foods in general and other takeaway are in your street, then you have no problems.

You should definitely visit a burger chain in San Francisco, so why not Hard Rock Cafe ? The San Francisco branch is actually very stylish and is located on Pier 39, Fisherman’s Wharf.

If you have children, head to Rainforest Cafe at 145 Jefferson Street, just off Fisherman’s Wharf. It will be a success for everyone in the family. We liked the Rainforest Cafe in San Francisco even better than the one in London.

Restaurants we recommend in San Francisco

Great Eastern Restaurant

If you drive to Chinatown and 649 Jackson Street in San Francisco, you will see the Great Eastern restaurant. The food is Chinese, the prices are not bad at all, and you can boast about having eaten at a restaurant where former President Obama has also eaten. Great Eastern is many people’s favorite to book in advance. Favourite dish? It must be shrimp rice noodles or dumplings!

The opening hours of the Great Eastern Restaurant are usually 1000 to 2300.

John’s Grill

A real classic in San Francisco is John’s Grill at 63 Ellis Street, not far from Union Square. Perhaps the city’s oldest and most famous eatery. Also, the action in the Maltese Falcon was added here. Many celebrity guests visit John’s Grill and you and them probably come to eat steak and possibly hear live music.

NB! John’s Grill closes early, approx. 2145 every night. So get there early, and preferably to a reserved table! Here is the website of John’s Grill.

The Stinking Rose

A little special restaurant that gets great feedback is The Stinking Rose at 325 Columbus Avenue. The name may come from the fact that there is a lot of garlic in the menus, but the kitchen is a mix of California and Italy and reaps many praises.

The Stinking Rose is open from 1130 to 2200 every day of the week. You can read more about The Stinking Rose here on their website.

Special restaurant in San Francisco

Tonga Room & Hurricane Bar

In Fairmont San Francisco you will find a very special and iconic restaurant and tiki bar that was established in 1945. It is called Tonga Room & Hurricane Bar and is not reminiscent of a tropical paradise. Here is music, dance floors, large indoor swimming pool and a wonderful menu inspired by Asian food and dishes from the South Sea.

Don’t be alarmed if you hear the sound of thunder and storm. The restaurant has a number of effects to offer. Dinner is served only from Wednesday to Sunday. Opening hours are from 1700 to 2345.

The address of the Tonga Room & Hurricane Bar is Fairmont San Francisco, 950 Mason Street. Read more on the website of Tonga Room & Hurrican Bar.

California and wine and beer

If California had been an independent nation, it would have been the world’s fourth largest producer of wine. Wine is grown in most of California’s 58 regions, so if you want to visit a winery, you don’t have to go very far from San Francisco. Napa County is perhaps the state’s most famous wine region, and this one is just north of San Francisco. If you travel east, you reach the wine regions of Sierra Foothill and Livermore, and to the south you have Santa Cruz and Monterey.

Shopping and Eating in New York City, USA

Shopping and Eating in New York City, USA

According to AbbreviationFinder, New York City is one of the largest cities in the country of USA.

Shopping in New York

New York City has everything, regardless of product and regardless of whether you are an avid fan of markets, department stores or specialty stores. New York City is also a fashion hub with some of the finest designers and trendsetters in the world. In all parts of Manhattan there are good shopping opportunities.

Together with London and Paris, New York City is the shoppers’ paradise. Despite the city being full of attractions, shopping may still be the main attraction.

As mentioned, you can buy everything, but there are still some products where it is easier to make good purchases than others. The range of clothing is incredibly large and many brands are sold reasonably. And in New York you get all sizes, so whether you are tall, low, thick or thin, you will find something that fits. Electrical products or computer equipment are other examples of products where you can make bargains. Music and books are also products where you can make a bargain.

5th Avenue is the fashion street. Walk 5th Avenue from Midtown, past Times Square and up towards Central Park, and you’ll see stores like Louis Vuitton, Prada and Hugo Boss, or skyscrapers like Trump Tower with fashionable stores, department stores like Bergdorf Goodman and Saks or specialty stores like The Apple Store upstairs at Central Park. NB! H&M has established itself with a giant store at 51st Street and 5th Avenue.

Markets and specialty stores in New York

For markets and specialty shops you should visit Soho. Here you will find designer shops, gourmet food shops and street markets. Not least, try Canal Street, which separates Soho from TriBeCa. If you are looking for cheap electronic articles, you get it here. For fashion lovers, and primarily fashion lovers under 40, check the streets between Thompson Street and Broadway.

Are you looking for shopping malls and department stores, we suggest Macy’s, which is possibly the world’s largest business, even though Macy’s might be more of an attraction than where you actually shop? If you have good advice, visit Barney’s on Madison Avenue and 61st Street. Every two years Barney’s has major cleanup sales. Check their website for sales when you visit.

You can find outlet stores in New York. The best-kept secret that is not a secret is Century 21. The address is 22 Cortland Street at the Financial District and Ground Zero. There are a lot of people here at times, but you get brands at very good prices.

Eating in New York

Food in New York City, USA

You don’t have to be afraid to go hungry in New York City. Very generous portions are served at everything from popular little cafes to fashionable restaurants. And you can eat your three daily meals at different new places and every single day of your life without having to show up twice at the same eatery. The quality is generally good, regardless of the number of stars at the eatery.

Every Manhattan neighborhood has great restaurants. In addition comes an endless array of bakeries, breakfast houses and “hot-dog” stalls. And we do not forget the even longer range of fast food chains and American restaurants, be it McDonalds, KFC, Wendy’s, Hard Rock, Burger King and Motowns. Hard Rock is located in Time Square, and the place regularly offers live entertainment, surprisingly good food and lots of souvenirs. Take time for a drink, if nothing else.

New York has all the ethnic cuisines represented, but is especially good when it comes to tex-mex, jewish, cinematic and italian. The last two logically enough with influence from Chinatown and Little Italy.

It is not very cheap to eat in New York, but it is considerably cheaper than in Norway. At least if you combine the meal with good wine and a ‘fore drink’. Of course, you can find simple and very affordable places, and also top-class restaurants when it comes to quality.

Tips when eating in New York

Remember that drinking is important when eating in New York. You must forget about Norwegian “tips / drinking culture”. For many waiters, it is almost the “drink” that is the salary. You are therefore expected to spend 20% or more on the restaurant’s bill.

Some suggestions for good restaurants with decent prices in New York are the following:

French: La Bonne Soupe, a rustic and charming French restaurant in Midtown, 48 West 55th Street between 5th Avenue and 6th Avenue.

Italian: Lombardi’s is New York’s oldest and most authentic pizzeria in Little Italy [see photo first in article]. The pizzas are lovely and the wine is reasonably priced. Maybe it’s because Americans drink beer for their pizza? The address is 32 Spring Street, Mott Street Mulberry Street.

Swedish: At the time of writing, Smörgås has three restaurants in different locations in New York. Nice, informal and good food for the money. We suggest the small and charming restaurant down at the corner of 283 West 12th Street. Here are special prices for good wine and happy hour every night from 7pm. 1700 to 1900. Read more about Smörgas.

Shopping and Eating in New Orleans, USA

Shopping and Eating in New Orleans, USA

According to AbbreviationFinder, New Orleans is one of the largest cities in the country of USA.

Shopping in New Orleans

Although New Orleans is not a fashion metropolis in line with e.g. New York City or Paris, by far most people will be happy with the offer of shopping. Not least, you can find wonderful markets, whether it’s for fruits and vegetables, used items, masks and costumes or for that matter voodoo items.

New Orleans also offers great galleries and large shopping malls. And, of course, you should know that if you shop in special stores, you will be refunded the value added tax. Foreigners are trading tax-free in New Orleans.

Tax Free shopping in New Orleans

In Louisiana you get reimbursed sales tax and sometimes also local tax. Not all stores can offer such services, so look for the brand with Tax Free. You must have a valid passport and not be on a trip that lasts longer than 90 days to have your taxes refunded.

The two places you will be refunded the tax are at Louis Armstrong International Airport and The Riverwalk Shopping Center. Meet up well before the flight leaves and remember your receipts if you want to try to get the tax refunded for what you have shopping!

Royal Street in New Orleans

Not far from the tourist magnet Bourbon Street you will find the street Royal Street with all its antique shops, jewelers and art galleries. If you have good advice, you may also be staying in a hotel located on this street. Or maybe you have dinner at one of the good restaurants here. Regardless, Royal Street is one of the finer areas of the French Quarter, and a street worth a visit whether you are shopping or not.

Magazine Street in New Orleans

This huge street is full of so-called boutiques, with fashion clothes and other trendy, as well as craft shops and antique shops. Magazine Street has always attracted both the wealthy and the more bohemian residents. Together, these people groups and the mix of shops, cafes and nightlife creates an atmosphere that shopping tourists love! This is also a nice place to be to feel the pulse of New Orleans.

Especially shopping in New Orleans

Voodoo Stores in New Orleans
When in New Orleans, of course, you have to bring something that bears witness to the city’s long voodoo history. Many souvenirs are naturally linked to Mary Laveau, read more at New Orleans attractions. A select voodoo store is Marie Laveau House of Vodoo. You can find this store at 739 Bourbon Street in French Quarter.

Costume Stores in New Orleans
Something else that is special about New Orleans is all the mask and costume stores. It is not for nothing that the great Mardi Gras is just celebrated in New Orleans. Visit Masks & Make Believe in 1 Poydras Street, Level C in The Riverwalk Mall or the Le Garage Antiques and Clothing store at 1234 Decatur Street, French Quarter.

The best vegetable and food market in New Orleans is probably the Crescent City Farmers Market. Here are delicacies and great ingredients everywhere. Local chefs showcase and demonstrate their talents with accompanying tastings to visitors. At Crescent City Farmers Market there is always life and touch and the market is worth a visit too as a small tourist attraction.

Shopping Centers in New Orleans

The Riverwalk Shopping Center
The Riverwalk Shopping Center was once part of the World Exhibition held in Louisiana in 1984, but in 1986 became a thoroughbred and solid shopping center. The address is 1 Poydras Street on the Mississippi River.

Jax Brewery
Jax Brewery is a landmark in New Orleans. Once upon a time, this was a brewery, (for Jax Beer of course). Today, Jax Brewery is a shopping center with renowned shops, as well as housing a brewery museum. Many consider this shopping center one of the best in the United States. The address is 600 Decatur Street in the French Quarter.

Canal Place
333 Canal Street in French Quarter is the address of this shopping center. Canal Place is next door to the large Aquarium of the Americas and therefore frequently visited by tourists on their way to or from the aquarium. Here are enough shops for everyone in the family.

Eating in New Orleans

Food in New Orleans, USA

If there is a special kitchen for the United States then it must be the local food you get in Louisiana and thus also in New Orleans. For centuries, immigrants from different cultures and nations, not least African slaves and French immigrants, have contributed to this southern state getting its ‘Louisiana cooking’.

Louisiana cooking is fragments of Creole and Cajun cuisine. Originally, the former turned out to be a bit nicer, since it was developed by Africans who cooked the food of wealthy plantation owners. The Cajun kitchen was, after all, “just” pawns with French ancestry.

Louisiana food is characterized by being strong, but it is in no way comparable to the food you, for example. sheep in India. Peppers, chili, celery, onions and, not least, garlic, are almost mandatory ingredients in local New Orleans food.

What to Eat in New Orleans?

In New Orleans ‘s something for everyone. And this time it’s more than a fool. For you will of course find all the usual fast food chains and international restaurants, and also the same boring hotel food, here in New Orleans as in every other big city. But you also get delicious dishes from the local Louisiana cuisine. Spicy cajun sausages are a must.

And of course, you have to taste the dish that personifies the food in New Orleans, namely ‘ Jambalaya ‘. Jambalaya is a dish of shrimp, chicken, ham, rice and the ever-present ingredients of celery, onion and chili. Jambalaya is a very good dish that you get at “all” cajun restaurants.

For dessert you just have to choose Bananas Foster which naturally consists of bananas. These are bathed in butter, fried, sugared and applied with a dose of e.g. cinnamon, cognac, yes you read correctly, and vanilla ice cream.

Featured restaurants in New Orleans

Café Amelie
Here you will find simple dishes such as salad and sandwich. However good it is and the place is popular. The restaurant is beautifully located in the French Quarter, in an old venerable house. The address is 912 Royal Street. Here both locals and tourists come!

Steamboat Natchez
How to combine a 2-hour cruise with dinner? The food is served accompanied by glad jazz. The noon cruise departs at 1900 from Toulouse Street Wharf directly into Jackson Square. The dress code is casual.

Ralph’s on the Park
This restaurant has countless awards for its very good local New Orleans cuisine. Real Southern hospitality meets you from the first moment and the breadth of the menu is great. The restaurant is next door to the New Orleans City Park. Address 900 City Park Avenue.

Red Fish Grill
You can’t be in New Orleans without eating seafood. Then there is hardly a better choice than Red Fish Grill at 115 Bourbon Street, a street you will find yourself in. The restaurant has the same owner as Ralph’s on the Park and many restaurant critics claim this is New Orleans’ best seafood restaurant for you who want to eat without eating Put on a suit or dress and spend your entire holiday budget on food.

Cafe du Monde
This is perhaps the most famous night out in New Orleans. Cafe du Monde means something like the World Café and has appeared in a number of novels, including the author James Lee Burke. The address of the original outdoor cafe is 800 Decatur Street. NB There are several other Café du Monde in New Orleans.

Shopping and Eating in Los Angeles, USA

Shopping and Eating in Los Angeles, USA

According to AbbreviationFinder, Los Angeles is one of the largest cities in the country of USA.

Shopping in Los Angeles

We have probably said this about other cities as well, but in Los Angeles you actually get (almost…!) Everything between heaven and earth. In one of North America’s largest port cities, Long Beach just outside of LA, tons of items and items arrive every day, which you can immediately purchase over the counter. Los Angeles has residents from 140 different nations and their desire for goods from their respective home countries contributes greatly to the huge selection.

We could write an entire guide book on shopping in LA, but it does not help to highlight the following areas that are particularly attractive.

Rodeo Drive

Los Angeles’ Golden Triangle is bounded by Wilshire Boulevard, Santa Monica Boulevard and North Canon Drive. The main artery in the middle is Rodeo Drive. There are probably more exclusive designer shops here than in all the Nordic capitals combined. Few of us ordinary mortals have the finances to go down here with shopping bags, but if there are products from Gucci, Chanel, Armani and Cartier on your shopping list, you now know where to go.

Melrose Avenue

In the ten to twelve blocks of Melrose Avenue, located between La Brea and San Vincente Avenue, you’ll find countless Hip & Cool stores, but nowhere near as expensive as Rodeo Drive. Here you will find most things from music stores and underwear stores to booksellers, interior sales and second hand shops, most of them with artful facades that would pay close attention if they were located in Norway.

Santee Alley

If you’re looking for promotional items, spend some time browsing the stores in the blocks between Olympic Boulevard, Santee Street and 12th Street. Here you will find several outlets, which sell surplus goods and giveaways on designer products for which you would have to pay twice as much for Rodeo Drive. The first Friday of the month, California Mart has big sales. But of course there are also countless other stores. If you are looking for CDs, computer games, electronics, books or skateboards, you will find it here.

The area around Sunset Plaza

This has become a staple for tourists, who are just as much here as shopping to sip their caffe latte at one of the many sidewalk cafes while looking for celebrities. There are also many fashionable boutiques, restaurants and beauty salons.

Farmers Market

This may sound like a place to buy fresh tomatoes and combine harvesters, but Farmers Market is an established institution that has been a meeting place and landmark in Los Angeles since 1934. Here you will find over a hundred stores and eateries, from the usual chains to the more separate specialists selling candles or pinballs. Farmers Market has a distinctive bell tower, located on the corner of 3rd Street and Fairfax Avenue.

The Grove

Right next to the Farmers Market is an outdoor shopping and entertainment complex called The Grove. It opened in 2002 and covers an area of ​​over 53,000 m². Here is the huge department store Nordstrom, the American clothing store chain Abercrombie & Fitch and sales for Nike, Gap and Apple.

If you want to buy real western clothing while you are in The Real West, then you can visit 30-year-old Billy Martin’s, who among his customers can count Bruce Springsteen, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bono, Madonna and Mikhail Gorbachev. The store is located at 8605 Sunset Boulevard, on The Sunset Strip.

General information!
Most shops are open between 1000 and 1900 every day except Sundays. Some of the largest department stores close even later and also have Sundays open. Please note that 8.25% sales tax is added on when you pay. With larger purchases, you can in many cases be refunded at the airport sales tax / sales tax when you leave California.

Eating in Los Angeles

Food in Los Angeles, USA

It’s hard to say what is typical Los Angeles food, because most residents are from somewhere else. With a population of around 3.8 million from 140 different countries, it goes without saying that there is an extremely wide variety of eateries.

And since most of these nationalities have naturally searched together in their own neighborhoods, you can rest assured that you will find excellent Chinese restaurants in Chinatown and excellent Persian restaurants in Tehrangeles. The places of eating in Little India, Thai Town, Little Ethiopia, Koreatown, Little Tokyo, Filippinotown and Little Armenia naturally offer the best of their respective countries of origin as well.

One of the most popular of Los Angeles’s many thousands of eateries is Joe’s Restaurant located at 1023 Abbot Kinney Boulevard in Venice. Here, French-Californian cuisine is served in modern varieties, and although the prices are not among the lowest, the place has received excellent feedback from its guests.

Another critically acclaimed restaurant is the Japanese Matsuhisa, which is not afraid to experiment with Latin American flavors. Matsuhisa is located at 129 N La Cienega Boulevard in Beverly Hills. This is a fairly relaxed and quiet place, which is apparently constantly visited by the neighborhood’s celeb residents.

You should also try one of the city’s many Mexican restaurants. At El Tepeyac at 812 North Evergreen Terrace, you can sip on huge tortillas or burritos for a bargain; an average entree costs no more than around 40-50 kroner.

The Tlapazola Grill at 4059 Lincoln Boulevard in Marina del Rey has also received very good reviews, and has dishes you have certainly not tried before.

If you want to go for sure you always have The Grill at Hollywood & Highland Center. Here typical American food is served, ie steak, chicken, hamburger and seafood. Naturally in large portions.

California Wine and Beer

If California had been an independent nation, it would have been the world’s fourth largest producer of wine. Wine is grown in most of California’s 58 regions, so if you want to visit a winery, you don’t have to go very far from Los Angeles. One of the largest districts is along Highway 101, northwest of LA and Santa Barbara. Around Solvang and Buellton some of the state’s best Chardonnays are produced.

If you continue north, there are many other vineyards around the Arroyo Grande and Edna Valley.

About 150 miles southeast of Los Angeles are Temecula and San Diego County wine districts. If you follow Interstate 15, get off at the exit marked Rancho California Road. There are about fifty different vineyards producing both red and white wine, many of which can be visited without prior arrangement. Some also offer accommodation, such as Churon Winery.

Shopping and Eating in Houston, USA

Shopping and Eating in Houston, USA

Houston is one of the largest cities in the country of USA.

Shopping in Houston

Like all other major cities in the United States, Houston itself states that the city is a shopping paradise. And it’s probably true that you find everything between heaven and earth of produce in this great city.

Houston offers exciting specialty shops and, not least, huge shopping malls that stand out as the cathedrals of our time.

The Upper Kirby District
Here you will find a myriad of shops selling everything from shoes to interiors and baked goods. Walk the streets of Upper Kirby, West University and Montrose, e.g. Bissonnet Street Houston and Westheimer Road north of Hermann Park.

Shopping Centers in Houston

The Galleria
Shopping Center, which ranks # 1 in Houston defined by AbbreviationFinder, is The Galleria, a glass atrium with 375 stores selling exclusive products such as Cartier and Gucci and of course cheaper brands. The address is Westheimer Road, Uptown.

River Oaks Shopping Center
This 1932 center houses 65 stores and attracts tourists from all over the world. The address of River Oaks Shopping Center is West Gray, not far from Westheimer Road.

Uptown Park
With inspiration from Europe, Uptown Park stands out as a very refined shopping center with its colorful building located on an elegant piazza. The center consists of a number of exclusive shops. The address to Uptown Park is Uptown Park Boulevard.

Antiques and Flea Markets in Houston

The street for those who like to look at and maybe shop for antiques and art is 19th Street just north of downtown.

Flea markets are always fun. It is said that one of the best in Houston is the Sunny Flea Market located at 8705 Airline Drive. Here you will find everything from old LPs, computer games to popcorn machines and furniture.

Souvenirs in Houston

The typical Houston souvenir draws inspiration from Texas. Ie Cowboy hats, which, by the way, are much more expensive than you think, if you then buy a real version, belt buckles with ox emblems, Texas flags and maybe an elaborate craft product. There are many souvenir bins. One of the better, and more expensive, Texas and The Territories is located at The Galleria shopping center.

Eating in Houston

Food in Houston, USA

Houston is one of the cities in the United States with the best restaurant offerings. The residents often eat their food outside, which ensures that the restaurants are usually well visited.

The variety of cuisine is great in Houston and in addition to compulsory Tex-Mex food and barbecue, which you just have to experience, you have to make room for food from Germany, France, India, Italy, Lebanon, China, Thailand and Brazil, only to mention something.

With its location near the sea, seafood is popular. Eat shrimp and other shellfish at a restaurant or buy directly from boats at the harbor.

Restaurant tips in Houston

Of course, there are many downtown restaurants, and the Westheimer Road that runs through Montros, Galleria Areas and River Oaks has a number of restaurants. One suggestion is Mark’s American Cuisine where it would be unnecessary to explain the type of food on the menu? The address is 1628 Westheimer Road. The restaurant is very popular and reservations should be made early.

A good (and typically American) alternative is the Cheesecake Factory at 5015 Westheimer Road. [see image first in article].

Do you like Chinese food, or for that matter Vietnamese food? Then visit Houston’s big Chinatown. Here you will get everything from Peking Duck to Dim Sum. In the US, they love Asian food!

Do you want a slightly informal evening of real fajitas and maybe one or more Maragaritas too? Try El Tiempo Cantina at 5602 Washington Avenue. Mexican and Italian cuisine and a lovely atmosphere. Often full on weekends.

Shopping and Eating in Granada

Shopping and Eating in Granada

Granada is one of the largest cities in the country of Granada.

Shopping in Granada

It’s just so nice to walk around Granada and look around in various shops, galleries, markets and bazaars.

Shopping in Granada defined by AbbreviationFinder takes place primarily near the cathedral and on the streets of Calle Recogidas and Calle Reyes Católicos. These are streets in the historic center ofGranada. You will find primarily well-known stores such as Zara, Pull and Bear and the like.

Calle Elvira is a street in the Albayzin district and belongs to the Moorish part of Granada. Here you will find a number of exotic shops, almost bazaar-like, which not least offer good leather goods and lamps of all colors. Maybe this is where you find your dream souvenir?

Carrera del Darro is perhaps the most charming street in Granada. Here you will also find a number of exciting specialty shops and galleries.

If you are looking for cheap products of all types, then visit the street Calle Mesones almost in the middle of the city center. The street starts from the large square Plaza de La Trinidad which is easy to recognize with its beautiful fountain.

Shopping center in Granada

A favorite center for many in Granada is Nevada Shopping. It is biggest and best and an experience in itself. The address is Avenida de las Palmeras 75. You will find the center approx. 5 miles south of the historic center. Opening hours are from 1000 to 2200 every day of the week except Sundays where it is closed. Check out theNevada shopping website here!

Suvins and memories from Granada

In Granada you meet the Alhambra the same way you meet Mozartbullets in Salzburg. The fortress town of Alhambra can be found on postcards, cups and magnets and other items in all souvenir shops. You can also find Alhambra on liqueur bottles and as a motif on t-shirts. So if you are looking for something that symbolizes Granada, then you know what matters.

Specialty shops worth a stop in Granada

Otherwise, Granada offers a lot of food and drinks that are easily taken home. Take a trip to the famous and charming Al Sur shop / bar (see photo above), which is in line with the old and impressive entrance to the Old Town, Puerta Elvira. The address is Calle Elvira 150.

The dream shop for ladies of all ages is (maybe) the Patio. It is located in Calle del Darro 5 and offers perfume in endless variations. You can also create your own perfume in the store. In addition, thePatio de los Perfumes has its own perfume museum.

Candy in every shape is worth testing out in Granada. Why not visit Muzungu in Cuesta de Gomérez, 3 not far from Placa Nueva ? The shopMuzungu brings happiness to both you and your dentist.

If you are more than a so-called tea type, Medievo is the right place. You will find a giant Medievo store opposite the Cathedral of Granada. The address is Calle Cárcel Baja, 5. They also have different types of herbs and spices. Let the sense of smell get tested and visitedMedievo.

A must for anyone who loves great pictures and creativity is to visit the Galleria Alea in Calle del Darro 51. Simply our favorite shop. Why didn’t we buy the picture of David Bowie?

Eating in Granada

Food in Granada

Granada is known as one of the best tapas cities in Spain. It is teeming with good tapas restaurants in Granada.

The food in Granada is characterized by short-lived local produce. Much comes from the mountainous area near Granada. But food is also brought and brought from the sea, which after all is not far away.

Some classic dishes in Granada are the salad La Pipirrana (preferably contains onions, tomato, olive oil, boiled eggs, preferably some fish, cold meats, vinegar, pepper and garlic), las habas con jamon (which is beans with ham), La trotilla part Sacromonte (omelette with ham) and of course the cold tomato soup gazpacho. On the cake / dessert front, las Tortas de la Virgen and the caramelized sugar cookie la barreta will be typical of Granada.

But Granada has many other exciting things to offer in the food industry as well. Remember that Granada has been under many different cultures, and it has naturally affected the food as well. Especially food from the Middle East and North Africa. The menus are often from Morocco, including cous cous, traditional tea and dessert cakes.

Granada is teeming with restaurants, tapas bars, as well as so-called teterias (which are Arabic tea houses) and all types of bars. Also remember that Granada is a very large student city. This often results, as here in Granada, in very lively nightlife and plenty of affordable nightlife.

Some select restaurants in Granada

Los Jardines de Zoraya

Sometimes you also have to experience a dinner show with Flamenco. And then the best choice is Los Jardines de Zoraya, located in the street Calle Panaderos, centrally located in the Albaicin neighborhood of Granada.

Los Jardines de Zoraya serves up either delicious three- or four-course dinners for the two daily (nightly) flamenco shows.

Bar Avila

The traditional tapas restaurant or tapas bar if you want, we let Bar Avila represent. The restaurant has been in Granda since 1967 and you will find it in 16 Calle Verónica de la Virgen, which is reasonably centrally located in the middle of the city.

In Bar Avila, it usually gets crowded and you, like them, come for a beer, some wine or something stronger, and tapas.


At the more exclusive end of the scale, we choose Alameda which is located in the street Rector Morata 3 in Granada. There are several Michelin restaurants and of course so-called Michelin recommended restaurants. such as Alameda. Almeda is a gastrobar offering typical Andalusian cuisine, but with a modern twist. Here you also get various high quality fish dishes.

The best part is that you do not get broke for the prices here are very popular, the quality taken into consideration.

Restaurante Jardines Alberto

As a green oasis, you will find Restaurante Jardines Alberto (see photo first in the article) near the entrance to the Alhambra. The address is Paseo de la Sabica. The prices scare no one, and certainly not when you think about the quality of the food.

The restaurant is family run and was started in the 1950s by the son of the famous painter Ramón Carazo. Originally it was a party place with Flamenco. In 1985 Carmen became a restaurant.

Opening hours are usually from 0900 to midnight. Here you get both lunch and dinner. Sundays and Mondays, Restaurante Jardines closes Alberto at 2030.


With perhaps the most stylish location, ie the top of the Centro Cultural Memoria de Andalucia, you will find the gourmet restaurant Arriaga, which is perhaps also the best and most beautiful restaurant in Granada. Here it is not reasonable, but then you get Michelin quality. And great views are included.

Arriaga’s address is Av. De la Ciencia 2, ca. 1.5 kilometers outside the center of the research park. NB! Arriaga is definitely worth a visit, but stays closed Mondays. In addition, Arriaga serves lunch only on Sundays and Tuesdays. Lunch is 1345 to 1530 and dinner is 2045 to 2230. Book in advance.

Shopping and Eating in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Shopping and Eating in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

According to AbbreviationFinder, Fort Lauderdale is one of the largest cities in the country of United States.

Shopping in Fort Lauderdale

Fort Lauderdale and surrounding areas are a shopping paradise. In general, we can say that the price level of anything but luxury goods and expensive fashion brands is cheaper than in Norway.

It is especially beneficial to buy sportswear and sports gear Fort Lauderdale. The same goes for some clothing from famous brands.

Sawgrass Mills – The World’s Largest Outlet

The world’s largest outlet mall, Sawgrass Mills, is located by the city of Sunrise, a few miles outside Fort Lauderdale. Here are brands from the world’s leading manufacturers with big discounts.

Adidas, Anne Klein, Banana Republic, Gap, Clarks, Foot Locker, Fossil Co, Guess, Hush Puppies, JC Penney, Jockey, Lacoste, Oakley, Nike, Neimann Marcus, Saks 5th Avenue, Polo Ralph Lauren, Quicksilver, Puma and many several offer everything from clothes, shoes, glasses, home decor, sports equipment etc.

At Sawgrass Mills you will also find a large selection of cinemas and other entertainment. At Sawgrass Mills you also get food service in the huge food court with dishes from all over the world.

Boulevards and shopping

Elegant Las Olas Boulevard starts at the boardwalk and extends up Andrews Avenue. This is Fort Lauderdale’s answer to Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills. Here it is delicious, elegant and expensive. You will find trendy shops, hairdressers, art galleries and everything else that belongs to jet-set life.

Equally central, at the bottom of Sunrise Boulevard, is an elegant mall called Galleria Mall. Here you will find Neiman-Marcus, Saks, Macy’s and more. These are stores in the higher price range and with a price level in line with what you find at home. Let’s add that the restaurant offer is good at the Galleria Mall.

The Gallery and the boardwalk

The Gallery at Beach Placeis superbly located on the boardwalk Ft Lauderdale Beach Boulevard. Here there are opportunities for outdoor shopping combined with entertainment, nightlife and restaurant visits.

The shops are modern, youthful and trendy. T-shorts, sunglasses and fashion clothing dominate the selection. NB! You will find many good and affordable sports shoes.

Flea Market Swap Shop

Florida’s largest indoor flea market is called the Swap Shopand is located just across from Sunrise Boulevard. Other entertainment is offered here, including circus every day except Tuesdays.

Golf equipment in Fort Lauderdale

Fort Lauderdale with all its golf courses is a golfer’s paradise. If you buy golf equipment here, you can quickly save up to 40% compared to buying the same equipment at home. You can choose from several major sports stores, including theSports Authority, located on Sunrise Boulevard, andEdwin Watts Golf on the Federal Highway.

Eating in Fort Lauderdale

Food in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

With more than 3,500 restaurants, there are great opportunities to taste culinary dishes from almost every corner of the globe.

Fort Lauderdale has everything from intimate cafes and outdoor seating to elegant luxury restaurants. Of course, there are also many steakhouses in addition to all possible varieties of fast food restaurants. Many of the latter are also well known here at home.

The food in Fort Lauderdale is as versatile and diverse as the people living in the United States. In particular, many immigrants from Italy live here. Therefore, the city has many Italian restaurants.

But you will also find tavernas from Greece, Chinese restaurants, sushi bars as well as restaurants serving traditional Cuba food and the rest of the West Indies. If we also mention restaurants that serve food from Brazil, Argentina, Germany, Thailand and Israel, you understand that eating in Fort Lauderdale is something very special.

If we are to mention typical local food, it must be fresh seafood in addition to exotic fruits and vegetables. By the way, Fort Lauderdale, like the rest of the United States, is known for juicy steaks and ribs – and burgers, of course.

Shopping and Eating in Costa Rica

Shopping and Eating in Costa Rica

According to AbbreviationFinder, Costa Rica is one of the countries in Central America.

Shopping in Costa Rica

This is not the country you go to for shopping. Most imported products, such as electronics and fashion clothing, are just as affordable in Europe, and with much better selection and opportunity to return any defective goods. But on other items you can make some bargains in Costa Rica. The leather products are generally of high quality and everything from belts, bags, suitcases and shoes are easily accessible. You also get very good prices for clothes that are manufactured locally or in neighboring countries, although that is not exactly the case for the catwalk.

Costa Rica’s largest export items are bananas and coffee. Banana clusters may not be the ideal souvenir to take home in your suitcase, but the local coffee is world class and affordable. This one will certainly offer you the purchase of coffee plantations that you visit, but it is often cheaper at supermarkets. Be sure to buy Puro, and not the blended, sugary Tradicional.

The craftsmanship that you will come across is both fine and colorful. Normally this is of high quality, but not infrequently the art of craftsmanship is imported from cheaper countries such as Panama and Guatemala, and is not really Costa Rican.

It may be tempting to buy a box of genuine Cuban cigars, which are sold all over Costa Rica at a fraction of the price in Europe. But keep in mind that if you fly home via the United States, you risk getting confiscated. Cuban products are illegal to bring into the United States, even if you only change plans there.

And by all means do not go into the trap of buying any plant or animal products, even though it is obviously for sale. You get stopped in customs with products of eg snake skin, lizard skin, protected plants, turtle or coral, so not only do you risk it, but you also deserve a juicy cure. Even small earrings or necklaces of the wrong material can get you in trouble. You also help to continue the hunt for endangered species.

Most stores in Costa Rica are open from 08:00 or 09:00 to 18:00 or 19:00 on weekdays and Saturdays. Sundays are mostly closed everywhere, except for some grocery stores in the larger cities. Even if you pay a 13% sales tax on all goods and services, there is no tax-free system to refund this upon departure.

Eating in Costa Rica

Food in Costa Rica

Don’t expect the great culinary experiences during your Costa Rica visit. The typical local dishes consist mostly of black beans and rice, often with various vegetables and some spices, with tortillas added. But in return, this food is both reasonably priced and available virtually anywhere.

However, the lowlands on the Caribbean coast have adopted the food culture of the Caribbean, primarily Jamaica, and here you can expect to serve several more exotic and tasty dishes. Naturally, seafood is more common here than in the Highlands.

If you do not want to experiment in the food when traveling, you will find in Costa Rica the same international chains as in the rest of the world. Both McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, KFC and TGI Fridays have found their way to the big cities, and you will always find a Chinese or Indian restaurant.

The country’s best restaurants can be found in the capital, San Jose, and it’s not particularly expensive, not even the most exclusive. You should be pretty extravagant to manage to spend over $ 300 on a meal if you avoid loosening imported wine bottles.

Coffee and other drinks in Costa Rica

Costa Rica coffee is world class and one of the country’s most important export products next to bananas. Almost everyone drinks coffee, including the kids. The coffee is usually served with milk and sugar, so ask for cafe negro its azucar (black coffee without sugar) if you prefer it black. Coffee is usually served only for breakfast and lunch, with hardly anyone drinking coffee late in the day.

Wine has no traditions in Costa Rica, but the local beer is light and tasty and is often drunk for food. The most common brands are Pilsen, Imperial and Bavaria. And watch out for the strong, glossy sugar liquor guaro.

There is often a very good selection of juices from tropical fruits that it may be long until the next time you have the opportunity to drink in freshly squeezed form, so go for it! Passion fruit, mango, papaya, pineapple and guava are just some of the tasty and healthy varieties that await.

Shopping and Eating in Chicago, USA

Shopping and Eating in Chicago, USA

Chicago is one of the largest cities in the country of USA.

Shopping in Chicago

Chicago is undoubtedly a great shopping city, both in terms of quality and quantity of shops. The city calls itself in typical American style as the best shopping city in the entire world United States, New York City included.

The fact is, in any case, that Chicago is a city where most of the best-known dealers and department stores in the country are located.

Popular shopping streets and areas of Chicago

State Street and Michigan Avenue are a matter of course for the shopping crowds. The same goes for the Wicker Park and Lincoln Park areas, not least for those looking for upscale stores with the latest trendy products. Here you will find everything from antiques, food and jewelry, to fashion shops with clothes and shoes.

Michigan Avenue is popularly called “the Magnificent Mile” on the crowds, not least because of its more than 450 stores offering everything the heart desires. We can also recommend Oak Street right on Michigan Avenue. If you go to the River North Gallery District you will also find more than 60 galleries for those looking for art and antiques.

Typical shopping in Chicago

If you are first in Chicago defined by AbbreviationFinder then there are two things everyone buys with them. One is the sovereignty of the city’s pride in American sports. Typical souvenir shops with sporting goods can be found in several places. The alternative is Niketown Chicago at 669 N. Michigan Avenue, which is a flagship of Nike stores. And of course open 7 days a week.

The other archetypal to buy is denim clothing, or olabaks and olajaks in good Norwegian. One tip, then, might be The Original Levi’s Store on Michigan Avenue (N 600). Here you get everything that Levis produces, whether you are big or small, boy or girl.

Chicago’s best department stores and shopping malls

Americans love department stores and shopping malls, and in Chicago you will find several worth visiting. Among other things, we mention:

Bloomingdales is located at 900 N. Michigan Avenue and has 6 floors of clothing and shoes for everyone in the family. Stick to the information on the 2nd floor so it is not impossible that you get to participate in the magazine’s promotional activities, and most often this is a gift given to you as a merchant.

You must also visit Chicago Place which is open seven days a week, normally from 1000 to 1900. Sundays open to Chicago Place 1200 and close at 1700.

In partially the same street, at Micihigan Avenue and Fifth Avenue, you will find Saks offering top quality when it comes to shoes, boots and bags.

Marshall Field & Co. or now more commonly known as Macy’s is a Chicago shopping legend dating back to 1852. The address for today’s major department store is State Street in the Downtown Loop neighborhood.

Remember to test the chocolate department in the basement where you can taste the unique Frango chocolate (mint) sold only here. This is also the mall with the well-known corner clocks that were first installed in 1879.

Outlets near Chicago

Outlets, ie stores that sell branded and designer clothing at discounted prices due to small cosmetic or discounted models, are popular in the United States and there is hardly a better opportunity to get top quality items for lower prices.

In Chicago, you won’t get outside of Chicago Premium Outlets with its 120 outlet stores, be it Ann Taylor, Banana Republic, Brooks Brothers, Calvin Klein, Gap Outlet, Giorgio Armani, Kenneth Cole, Lacoste, Nike, Polo Ralph Lauren, Salvatore Ferragamo, Sony, or more. The address is west of downtown Chicago, turn off at Aurora Farnsworth Avenue North. Calculate a 45 minute drive. Open all days of the week, but may be closed at holidays.

Special stores in Chicago

Regardless of your special interests, you will most likely find a store in Chicago that meets your needs. In any case, we think the following slightly special stores may be worth visiting:

What would the United States have been without popcorn? Why not visit the popcorn heaven embodied through the Garrett Popcorn Shop in the great Michigan Avenue shopping street? (N 670). Here even popcorn is sold in their own gift boxes.

Brimfield is an independent specialty store located at 5219 N Clark Street (Uptown) and is a dream for anyone who loves interiors, cattage chic and vintage style.

If you love fashion, clothing and accessories, visit the Luxury Garage Sale at 1658 N Wells Street near Lincoln Park. Here you will find Chanel bags and McQueen creations alternating. It’s expensive, but cheap… If you understand.

Shopping with or for children in Chicago

If you are traveling with children or are shopping for gifts for children, of course, a visit to Chicago’s huge The Disney Store is a natural choice. The Disney Store is also located on Michigan Avenue (N 717) with all the well-known and beloved characters we all know from Disney’s movies and books.

For little girls, American Girl Place at 111 E. Chicago Avenue will be the dream. Here the American girl dream is brought to life. Maybe a little too American for some, but clearly something that gets the little girls a hundred!

Eating in Chicago

Food in Chicago, USA

Of course, in a city the size of Chicago, you have a huge selection of eateries, from the simplest street stalls to the most exclusive gourmet restaurants.

And there are so many of them that you rarely need to queue, unless you absolutely MUST enter the city’s Hard Rock Cafe or Rainforest Cafe, there are plenty of options close by.

Resturant tips for Chicago

It may not be so easy to find food and restaurants that are distinctive to Chicago, but the city’s residents are happy to take the credit for inventing Deep Pan Pizza. Another local specialty is the spicy sausage type Maxwell Street Polish.

Be aware that you may want to get a sneak peek from any serious sausage seller if you ask for ketchup, as opposed to banned on gourmet sausages. The same applies to a great deal of strong mustard, which they believe destroys the taste of the main ingredient; meat.

And to top it all, the Americans are very fond of their Steakhouses, and among the foremost in Chicago are Mike Ditka’s Restaurant, Harry Caray’s Italian Steakhouse and Gibson’s Steakhouse.

Lou Malnati’s Pizzeria

This is the most famous Deep Pan Pizza restaurant chain in the world. They claim (of course) that they have the world’s best pizza. You should check it out yourself too, because it is actually very good! You will find a number of Lou Malnati’s in Chicago. Among others, you’ll find one at 805 S State Street, another at 439 N Wells Street and a third at 1120 N State Street.

Lou Malnati’s is usually open from 1100 until midnight, and usually an hour longer on Fridays and Saturdays.

The Signature Room in Chicago

The Signature Room is undoubtedly the most distinctive restaurant experience you can have in Chicago. Located on the 96th floor of the Hancock Center, this restaurant, and if you book a table well in advance, you have a completely unmatched view of Chicago and Lake Michigan. It is not very cheap, the main courses cost around 250 kroner, but unless there is dense fog, you will probably not regret the expenses. Of course, the restaurant has a solid wine selection.

Food from all over the world in Chicago

Chicago has countless ethnic restaurants, often located in their respective neighborhoods, which increase internal competition, and eateries with poor service or poor quality of food thus quickly succumb. Chicago has one of America’s largest and liveliest Chinatown, and there is also a Little Italy, Ukrainian Village, Greek Town, Little India, etc. Around Lincoln Square and Albany Park, there are many restaurants serving South Korea, Germany or Central East.

Food Festival in Chicago

Every food lover should take part in the annual Taste Of Chicago, the world’s largest food festival, which takes place in Grant Park for ten days around National Day, July 4th. Over three million people visit the event every year, where there is also music and entertainment from several stages.

Shopping and Eating in Boston, USA

Shopping and Eating in Boston, USA

Boston is one of the largest cities in the country of USA.

Shopping in Boston

The main reason why Americans even visit Boston is shopping. When we know that for centuries Boston has been a market town that has attracted merchants and merchants, everything should cater for the merchant.

Most are heading directly for Newbury Street, where you will find all kinds of shops scattered on both sides of the street over eight blocks.

The other major shopping district is Downtown Crossing, located right by Boston Common Park. This is an old town with pedestrian streets full of shops, market stalls and department stores.

Downtown’s most famous store is Filene’s Basement, two floors below the ground that sells tons of surplus goods from the chain of the same name. Here you can find everything from designer clothes and perfume to wedding dresses and jewels at dumping prices.

Faneuil Hall Marketplace in Boston

We also do not get outside the tourists’ favorite area, the traditional Faneuil Hall Marketplace. [See image first in article]. Here you can spend hours looking through the offerings of sovereign stalls and carts, while jugglers, jugglers and other street performers are attracting the attention of many visitors. There are also many fun stores indoors, such as the upper floors of Quincy Market.

If you want a slightly less tourist-oriented market, try Haymarked just around the corner, which is open Fridays and Saturdays.

Souvenirs in Boston

The most typical souvenir of the Boston tourist is probably war antiques. Boston and New England are the oldest region in the United States, and you will find many galleries and antique shops where you can purchase items from both the Civil War and the War of Independence. The area at Beacon Hill should be the first stop if tempted.

Generally about shopping in Boston

Most shops are open from 1000 to 1900 every day except Sundays. Some of the largest department stores close even later, and of course have Sundays open.

Tax-free shopping in the United States is a chapter for itself, and sales tax varies from state to state. In Massachusetts, for example, there are no taxes and taxes on clothing and fabrics, and only 5% sales tax on other items. If you buy something expensive, you should investigate in advance whether the sales tax is refundable, but often this can be a complicated affair that requires the goods to be exported where you live.

Eating in Boston

Food in Boston, USA

Boston defined by AbbreviationFinder has a good selection of eateries in all price categories. Thanks to a population of roots from all over the world, you will find countless ethnic restaurants, be it Vietnamese, Italian, Mexican, Indian, Japanese, Caribbean, Chinese or Russian restaurants in Boston.

Boston has food for everyone, and you can easily find restaurants in the wide avenues of Back Bay and in North End’s narrow alleyways. A safe place for restaurants in the north end of Boston is Hannover Street, [see photo first in article].

Seafood in Boston

Boston has always been known for its many good seafood restaurants, and the best of these are naturally located down by the harbor. Legal Sea Foods is a chain of nearly ten restaurants in Boston that has a very good reputation. You will find Legal Sea Foods at 255 State Street, 26 Park Plaza and 100 Hungtington avenue.

You also have a very large selection of eateries at Quincy Market, a historic 1820s building at Faneuil Hall Marketplace. Here you will find both exclusive restaurants and cheap fast food stalls serving everything from lobster to shish kebab.

And always there are street performers who entertain in the square outside. Yes, it is aimed at the tourists, and there are always a lot of people here, but definitely an entertaining experience. The address of Faneuil Hall Marketplace is Market Street.

Chinese food in Boston

If you love Chinese food, you’ll find a number of authentic Chinese restaurants in Boston’s Chinatown, located in the streets of Washington Street, Beach Street, Essex Street and Kneeland Street, southeast of Boston Common Park.

The East Ocean City restaurant at 27 Beach Street is considered one of the best, but the fierce competition means that many of the restaurants keep high quality and low prices.

Exclusive restaurants in Boston

The slightly more trendy and upscale restaurants are located in the theater district of the South End. Also in Back Bay you will find several of the better (and more expensive) eateries, such as L’Espalier at 774 Boylston Street and the stylish Excelsior at 272 Boylston Street. At both places a reservation is usually required.

Pub and nightlife in Boston

The many Irish who emigrated to America have made a definite mark on Boston’s nightlife, for there are many genuine Irish pubs, unlike the many like-Irish pubs you find around the world. Boston also boasts of having America’s oldest pub that has been in continuous operation. At 45-55 Union Street is Bell In Hand Tavern, which celebrated its 200th anniversary as early as 1995.

Bell In Hand is open until 0200 every day of the week.

Although Monty Python has forever and ever made sure to give American beer words for being thin and tasteless (“Like making love in a canoe; it’s f *** ing close to water”), Boston can turn in the table of producing the beer that has been voted the best in the United States on several occasions; Samuel Adams. In good American spirit, you actually have to confirm that you are over 21 years of age to enter your date of birth before you are allowed to visit their website at all.

No, we have not forgotten the TV series and the world success Cheers. It is inspired by the Bull and Finch Pub, located on Beacon Hill, specifically at 84 Beacon Street. This one is not at all similar to the bar you know from the TV, but it definitely does the replica located in Faneuil Hall in Market Street.