Tag: Germany

Germany Figurative Arts – Renaissance

Germany Figurative Arts – Renaissance

Renaissance and Reformation in Germany, are the main forces of an era which, spiritually prepared already before, begins around the beginning of the sixteenth century to get lost during the following century in a new period of transition. As for the other forms of spiritual life, also for art they were decisive in a positive and negative sense: positively because, through close participation in a great European spiritual current and through a deepening of religious sentiment, they increased their activity. artistic, also prompted by new models; negatively, because the great preponderance of the Italian Renaissance tore German art from the national and social environment that was its natural condition of life, while the Reformation, limiting the whole activity of the spirit to intimate religiosity, took away its main basis from figurative art. As a consequence of this double cause the incomparable enrichment of German art in the first two decades of the century. XVI was followed by an almost total collapse. Just as, under the impulse of French Gothic art, German art had reached its most powerfully original expressions and soon after it had become sterile, so in the German Renaissance, Italian art, at its peak, excited artists to express their creative forces fully, but immediately after the spread of the fashion almost extinguished any national spirit of art. The conflict between the national spirit and foreign currents culminates in Alberto Dürer (v.), Rightly considered as the most genuine representative of German art. In him the transition from the craftsman to the artist takes place, from the severe law of the Middle Ages to the freedom of the Renaissance; in him the typically German research of highly characteristic expressions and the predilection for decorative forms, with the need, learned from Italy, of formal beauty and rigorous structure come together. In the synthesis of these two antithetical qualities, as well as in the domain of all the means of drawing and color, Dürer represents an unsurpassable peak. His antagonist is Matthias Grünewald (v.), Who, upon contact with foreign art, reacted by deepening the spiritual heritage of his race more and more, so that, placed alongside Dürer, the typical representative of the spirit of his time, appears doubly anachronistic; i.e. like a late gothic artist, that excessive maturity has pushed to the extreme limits of his art, or as an artist of the Baroque era, which is a prelude to later developments. At the opposite pole of Dürer we find Hans Holbein the Younger (v.), Born twenty-six years later, who effortlessly welcomed within himself the spirit of the Italian Renaissance through which he expressed his skills as an attentive and acute observer. He is not an Italian, although one cannot imagine him, as he is, without the help of Italian art; frankly German, it closes (1542) a golden age, which had begun in 1490 with the advent of Dürer (born in 1471).

Dürer, M. Grünewald and H. Holbein are three peaks in the history of German Renaissance painting: their features are reflected in numerous other artists of their time, to varying degrees; but while they rise to a magnitude before which belonging to a particular school no longer has great importance, the other artists remain more closely linked to the individual local schools. In the Upper Rhine the dominant personality is Hans Baldung (v.), Called Grien; in Bavaria the dominance is divided between Albrecht Altdorfer from Regensburg and Wolf Huber from Passau, whose beginnings were strongly influenced by Luca Cranach (v.), a young painter from Franconia, who later, as a painter at the court of Saxony, took a completely different direction, giving a note of its own to the art of the Reformation and the Renaissance. In Augusta where Hans Holbein the Elder, although belonging to the previous generation, continued his activity until the late Renaissance, Jörg Breu and Hans Burgkmair (v.) were industrious; and the latter with its decorative tendencies profoundly influenced engraving and the minor arts. In Lower Germany the master of the altar of St. Bartholomew, a native of Upper Germany, kept German traditions alive. But Bartolomeo Bruyn, a little younger, came completely under the Dutch influence; and another of the main painters of Cologne, the master of the Death of Mary, is even identified with Joos van Cleve the Elder of Antwerp.

In sculpture we find an equally rich development of provincial schools, without however that personalities of undisputed value manage to rise to absolute heights. The Vischer workshop in Nuremberg, handed down to his children by P. Vischer the Elder, can be considered representative of the development of sculpture from the late Gothic to the Renaissance. But for all the rest, the workshops of the sculptors, who are increasingly influenced by painting and are often reduced to a purely industrial activity, generally have no other importance than that given by their great technical ability. In Augusta, in the place of Gregory Erhart who came from Ulm, Adolfo Daucher takes over, who can be called the Burgkmair of sculpture. Next to him Loy Hering works at intervals, coming from Kaufbeuren and later moving to Eichstätt, who developed an extraordinary fruitfulness as the author of funerary sculptures. In Bavaria Hans Leinberger from Landshut represents the style – half village and half mannerist – which corresponds in painting to the so-called “Danubian style” of Altdorfer and Huber. A similar excess in the search for pictorial effects and expression is observed in the Upper Rhine in the masters who worked on the altar at Isenheim and Breisach, and, in the Middle Rhine, in Hans Backofen. In Lower Germany, some stonecutters ‘and wood carvers’ shops (the Beldensnyder in Münster, Claus Berg in Lübeck, Hans Brüggemann from Lüneburg) continue to operate in a style which, if in detail follows the forms of the Renaissance transmitted from Flanders, in the spirit basically always continues the gothic style of the latest way, decorative and narrative.

The very abundance of production, which we have only hinted at, suggests how much it must fall towards the level of the products of industrial art; and as much as this was fecundated, the major arts were equally damaged by turning to a purely external skill. Unlike the craftsmanship of the late Gothic period, the Renaissance craftsmanship, marked by an academic spirit, has its roots in the spiritual need no longer of an entire people, but only of a higher caste, educated humanistically. Gradually the furrow that divides the nation and separates art from the people more and more widens. It first manifests itself in the works of engravers intent on developing new iconographic and ornamental repertoires (the so-called “Kleinmeister”), such as HS and B. Beham, Germany Pencz, H. Aldegrever, J. Binck; then continues in the pompous illustrative style and glass painting of Virgilio Solis, J. Amman, T. Stimmer and Cristoforo Maurer; and finally ends in the complete mannerism of Rudolf’s painters (so called because they were mostly industrious at the court of Emperor Rudolf II), such as Hans of Aachen, Joseph Heinz, Bartolomeo Spranger. Adamo Elsheimer from Frankfurt stands out, the only German painter who is part of the European artistic development, but who spent his entire life outside Germany, in Rome. The development of sculpture was healthier, which could rely on the tradition of the minor arts. In the art of the medal Hans Schwarz, Federico Hagenauer, Cristoforo Weiditz and others distinguished themselves; in minute plastic work Pietro Flötner, Hans Daucher, Benedetto Wurzelbauer and others, also producing good decorations. Meanwhile, in the larger and more monumental works, especially in the courts, Flemish and Italian artists of great technical skill were increasingly imposed.

In the early decades of the sixteenth century, architecture was of secondary importance compared to the figurative arts, both for reaction to the overabundant production of late Gothic art, and for the Reformation, which hampered the development of sacred architecture, or even for the difficulty of assimilating models of the Italian Renaissance. From the beginning of the Renaissance the decorations and ornamental motifs were copied almost exclusively; the understanding of his new concepts of structure and space which is found in the so-called “beautiful” church of Santa Maria in Regensburg is exceptional. From about 1530 onwards, secular architecture developed more strongly, in direct relationship with the increased power of the bourgeoisie and princes. Examples of the first are the municipalities of Altenburg (v.), Schweinfurt, Brieg, of Rotenburg, the Tucher house and the Hirschvogel house in Nuremberg; of the second, the Hartenfels castle near Torgau, the castles of Liegnitz, of Güstrow, the oldest parts of the royal palaces in Dresden, Munich, Berlin and above all the wing of Otto Henry of the castle of Heidelberg, where the general conception it is Italian, but the details are German. The last phase of the German Renaissance, which begins around 1580, is characterized by an accentuation of the two elements which then operated simultaneously: the local one, which, after a broader assimilation of the forms of the Italian Renaissance, develops with greater independence and freedom; and the European one which, thanks to the Counter-Reformation, grows in importance above all in southern Germany and still leans more directly on the contemporary Italian art, in the meantime already headed towards the Baroque. The most prominent personalities in this period of the German Renaissance are Giorgio Beer and Enrico Schickhardt in Stuttgart, Elias Holl in Augusta, who built the new town hall there, Giacomo Wolff in Nuremberg. Instead in Munich, which thanks to the Counter-Reformation and the building activity of the Wittelsbach dynasty now becomes an artistic center, an international style of import prevails. In central Germany, Aschaffenburg Castle, built to designs by Giorgio Riedinger, was a model for many similar buildings. In northern Germany, the cities of Brunswick (with Paolo Francke), Münster, Lüneburg (town hall, work by Lüder v. Bentheim), Gdansk (civic architect Antonio da Obbergen) became centers of Renaissance architecture.

While in profane constructions the Italian prototypes were more or less translated into Nordic forms, the sacred buildings of the Catholics were openly inspired by Roman models: thus the church of San Michele, built in Munich for the Jesuits (the mark of the counter-offensive launched by the Counter-Reformation), prepares the Italianate current of the Baroque.

Baroque age. – The attempts to give a national character to the Renaissance style, which are observed in some buildings, especially in those of Elias Holl, did not come to maturity. There was a halt in development, which is usually explained as a natural consequence of the catastrophe of the Thirty Years’ War, the political and economic effects of which were fatal for Germany. But war does not explain everything. Politically, the increase in absolutism had an influence, the external forms of which were modeled on those elaborated in France and Spain, while the impoverished bourgeoisie indistinctly re-attached itself to the ancient national traditions. To this political and social split is added the religious one. While the spirit of the Counter-Reformation came from Latin countries (Italy, Spain) together with part of the artistic ideas linked to the Catholic program, Protestantism maintained its denial in the face of art or at least deprived it of all opportunities, preventing its union with the liturgy and divine service, and, in opposition to tendencies of Catholics, he turned to the models offered by Holland. The reciprocal play of these forces produces and favors opposing tendencies, which unfold in parallel, without any compromise.

Above all, in places far from cultural centers, a late Gothic survives, lacking in vigor and with a popular imprint and unable to produce important works. Out of these secondary currents, art that wants to be modern gathers where the presence of a princely house can favor it: it becomes stately and takes on an Italian or French-Dutch orientation, depending on the political orientation of the individual courts. The most popular artists are mostly foreigners; and almost all secondary artists. The German imitators of these more able than worthy foreigners – for example the painter Joachim von Sandrart – are certainly not superior to them. A large part of the artistic production of that time was regulated by purely practical purposes; Protestantism in ecclesiastical architecture, in accordance with his principles, he emphasizes that concept of art and Catholicism, in countries where the struggle continues, is also forced to lock itself up in spiritual severity. Thus in this period between 1630 and 1680 the German Baroque mainly gives an impression of stasis and subjugation to foreign art.

But from the undercurrents of the post-Gothic style and under new vivifying external influences an original German art was to be reborn.

Germany Figurative Arts - Renaissance

Dresden, Germany History

Dresden, Germany History

Dresden goes back to the Slavic village Drezdzany (“Settlers at the Forest”) located at an old Elbe crossing. The Elbe valley area, which has been Slavically populated since the 7th century, appeared in 1004 as the Sorbian residential district Nisan (i); after 968 part of the later so-called Mark Meißen, it came in 1144 to the Wettin margraves of Meißen, who in the course of the German settlement in the east had a castle built around 1150 on the site of the later (from 1530) castle. To the south of it, in the third quarter of the 12th century, following an older merchant settlement, the city of Dresden was laid out with a regular floor plan (first mentioned in 1206, named Civitas in 1216); the city wall (attested in 1299) enclosed the castle, but not an older Sorbian market settlement (so-called old Dresden). Together with the earlier Sorbian settlement of Altendresden, known as Nisan until 1370, on the right bank of the Elbe (municipal law 1403; incorporated as New Dresden in 1550), Dresden already had 5,900 residents in 1489.

As the residence of the Albertine line of the Wettins (1485–1918) and the capital of the Electorate of Saxony (from 1547), Dresden developed into a world-famous cultural center. After 1539 the Reformation prevailed in Dresden, which remained a stronghold of the strictly Lutheran creed even when the Albertine princely house became Catholic again in 1697 (for the Polish royal crown). Developed into a Renaissance residence under Moritz von Sachsen (1541–53), the economy and culture of the city were developed in particular by Elector August (1553–86) promoted; he created the Kunstkammer (1560) and a book and map collection, the predecessor of the Saxon State Library (1556). As the second oldest musical institution in Dresden after the Dresden Kreuzchor, which was created in the first half of the 13th century, the Hofkapelle was founded in 1548, the forerunner of the Staatskapelle Dresden. The court also sponsored the musical theater, which was shaped by Italian opera (first opera house in 1666).

Under August II the Strong (1694–1733), and August III. (1733–63) Dresden was a place of brisk building activity and a place of splendid court life (so-called Augustan age); at that time the art collections were expanded (porcelain collection 1720, green vault 1721, picture gallery 1722, antique collection 1723, copper engraving cabinet 1728). Altendresden, which fell victim to a fire in 1685, was rebuilt as Neustadt (“New Royal City”, name since 1732). During the Seven Years’ War (1756–63), the Prussian troops that occupied Dresden from 1756–59 caused great damage through arson; In 1760, King Friedrich II of Prussia was looking for a place to recapture the lost fortress in vain under severe destruction.

In the Peace of Dresden (December 25, 1745), which ended the 2nd Silesian War, Prussia was confirmed the possession of Silesia, Saxony had to pay high war compensation and waived Silesian claims. – On the 26./27. 8. In 1813, a few weeks before the Battle of Leipzig, the French under Napoleon I defeated the main army of the allies near Dresden (last victory on German soil).

In the 17th century Bohemian religious refugees and in the 19th century Polish emigrants found refuge in Dresden. In the course of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848/49, there was also political unrest in Dresden; In 1849 the Dresden May Uprising formed the starting point of the imperial constitution campaign. In the second half of the 19th century (opening of the first German long-distance railway between Leipzig and Dresden in 1839), Dresden developed into a transport hub and industrial center; the industrial enterprises spread mostly in the suburbs. In the further course of the 19th century, Dresden, a royal residence since 1806, grew rapidly. The incorporation of suburbs and the construction of typical working-class quarters associated with industrialization caused the population to rise rapidly (1699: 21,000, 1727: 46,000 and 1755: 63,000) (1834: 74,000, 1852: 100,000 [big city], 1890: 277,000). After the incorporation of 65 villages (1892) Dresden (1900) had 396,000 residents; In 1933, after the incorporation of a further 23 towns (1921), it had the highest population of 649,300.

Dresden has been able to maintain its reputation as a cultural center since the 18th century. Excellent teachers were appointed to the art academy, which was founded in 1764. Visual artists (P. O. RungeC. D. Friedrich), poets and writers (H. von KleistE. T. A. HoffmannL. TieckA. H. Müller, the Schlegel brothers) came together here in the spirit of Romanticism, namely in the circle of the doctor and philosopher CG Carus. Experienced opera in the 19th century (C. M. von WeberR. Wagner), Concert and theater a cultivation that was continued in the first decades of the 20th century. Dresden’s reputation as a cultural center was also promoted by the circles around the »Kunstwart« (1887) and the »Dürerbund« (1902), the painter secession »Die Brücke« founded in 1905, the Hellerau reform efforts and the dance art of Mary Wigman and Gret Palucca.

On 13./14. 2. In 1945, Dresden, which was overcrowded with an additional 200,000 Silesian refugees (according to recent research; previous figures of up to 700,000 have now been considered too high) as well as many forced laborers and soldiers, was heavily destroyed by American and British bomber units (»Operation Donnerschlag «). 772 British bombers dropped 1,477.7 t of mines and high-explosive bombs and 1,181.8 t of incendiary bombs in two night raids. The American bomber associations (311 “Flying Fortresses”) dropped 3,767.1 t of mines and high-explosive bombs and 643.1 t of incendiary bombs in the following six day-to-day attacks. The area of ​​total destruction was 12 km 2, together with the area of ​​severe damage 15 km 2. Information on the number of victims varies greatly. The official estimates for 1945 initially assumed 25,000 fatalities (final report in mid-March) and later (at the end of March) Nazi propaganda indicated 250,000 deaths for ideological reasons. Due to a suspected number of unrecovered victims, it became customary to state the minimum number of 35,000 victims, which numerous publications took over by 2005. At the end of March 2005, a commission of historians set up by the city of Dresden confirmed the number of around 25,000 deaths as the most reliable number of victims. On May 8, 1945, Dresden was captured by Soviet troops.

Dresden was 1918–45, 1946–52 and has been the state capital of Saxony since 1990; 1952–90 it was the capital of the GDR district of the same name. In 1950 10 more places were incorporated, including Hellerau, Klotzsche, Niedersedlitz and Zschachwitz.

The peaceful candle demonstration by over 7,000 people on February 13, 1982 in front of the ruins of the Frauenkirche in Dresden was the first non-state mass rally in the GDR. In October 1989 Dresden was, after initially civil war-like conditions on 4th / 5th. 10., one of the great arenas of the peaceful revolution in the GDR (German history).

Dresden – the destruction in the air war in 1945

Dresden as a warning: the destruction in the air war in 1945

Gerhart Hauptmann’s complaint about the destruction of a large cultural site *

Anyone who has forgotten how to cry will learn it again when Dresden went down. This cheerful morning star of youth has shone the world so far. I know that there are enough good spirits in England and America who were no stranger to the divine light of the Sistine Madonna and who weep deeply struck by the extinction of this star.

And I personally experienced the fall of Dresden under the Sodom and Gomorrah hells of the English and American planes. When I insert the word “experienced” it is still a miracle to me. I do not take myself seriously enough to believe that fate has expressly reserved this horror for me at this point in what is almost the most dear part of my world.

I stand at the exit gate of life and envy all my dead comrades who were spared this experience.

I cry. Don’t bother with the word “weep”: the greatest heroes of antiquity, including Pericles and others, were not ashamed of it.

From Dresden, from his deliciously even artistry in music and words, wonderful rivers flowed through the world, and England and America also drunk thirstily from it.

Did you forget that?

I am almost eighty-three years old and stand before God with a legacy that is unfortunately powerless and only comes from the heart: it is the request that God love, purify and clarify people more for their salvation than before.

*) The text was written in March 1945 and was first published on April 6, 1946. – G. Hauptmann, first married to a woman from Dresden from 1885–1904, stayed in Dresden for the last time from February 5 to March 21, 1945; he experienced the bombing and destruction of the city in the basement of a sanatorium in Oberloschwitz, where his second wife was being treated.

Hauptmann: Dresden, in: the same: Complete works, edited by H.-E. Hass, Volume 11: Post-traced works, fragments (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1996), page 1205 f.

Dresden, Germany History

Augsburg, Germany City History

Augsburg, Germany City History

City foundation, antiquity

Augsburg’s name goes back to the Roman Augusta Vindelicorum. The name “Augusta” is explained by the fact that the city was built at the behest of the Roman emperor Augustus in 15 BC. Was founded. The settlement, which initially existed as a military camp, was also given the addition of Vindelicorum, which has to do with the tribe of the Vindeliker, who settled with them in that area. If one takes the already mentioned year 15 BC. as the city’s founding date, Augsburg would be Germany’s second oldest city. In any case, Augsburg was one of the largest Roman settlements north of the Alps after Trier.

In 121 the settlement of Augusta Vindelicorum was given Roman city rights by Emperor Hadrianus. From the end of the 1st century it even served as the capital of the Roman province of Raetia. The Germanic Juthung invaded Italy and Raetia in 260 ; they abducted thousands of Italians, but were crushed by the Roman governor on their march back. In 1992 the Augsburg Altar of Victory was discovered; this is invaluable evidence of this battle. In 271 the Juthung (as well as other tribes) invaded the province and the city again.

From the year 294 – after the division of the Raetia Province – Augsburg functioned as the capital of the Raetia Secunda Province. Since the 5th century there has been an increasing number of Alemanni incursions into this province. It is noteworthy in this regard that the settlement was not destroyed in the process. This fact is certainly related to the fact that at this time various pilgrimages to the grave of Saint Afra of Augsburg took place, which are mentioned, for example, in the Vita Sancti Martini by Venantius Fortunatus.
The martyrdom of Afra fell around the time around 300, when Augsburg had already been the seat of a bishop.

In the Middle Ages

According to intershippingrates, Augsburg gained in importance after Emperor Otto I, with the support of Bishop Ulrich von Augsburg, was able to defeat the Hungarians breaking through to the west near the city in the battle on the Lechfeld. In 1156 Augsburg was granted city rights again (this time by Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa) and in 1251 the right to tax citizens and to use a seal. 1276 was an even more important year for the city: The then King Rudolf von Habsburg granted Augsburg imperial immediacy, which meant nothing less than that the city was now allowed to have the status of a free imperial city.

As a result of this extended independence, however, there were violent conflicts with the bishopric, which was the secular domain of the prince-bishop. After the main episcopal residence was relocated to Dillingen (that is, to the Danube), a power vacuum was released, for which various patrician families were fighting. In 1368 there was an uprising of the urban craftsmen in this context. The result was the establishment of a guild constitution. After the guild constitution was introduced in Augsburg, which, by the way, was supposed to join the Swabian League of Cities in 1379, the influence of the guilds grew more and more. Until 1547 they were even involved in the city government.

At this point, reference should be made to the dictator Ulrich Schwarz, whose rule represented the climax of the guilds’ participation in government. He became mayor in 1469 and initially managed to give the guilds, which had not been given the opportunity to have a say, more influence in the city government. Augsburg’s debts could also be drastically minimized. But when the city patriciate got in his way, he made use of crude means: He had the patrician brothers Vittel executed and thereupon himself was given the death penalty (1478).

Augsburg, Germany City History

In the early modern times

The early modern period marks Augsburg’s most important historical phase. It was a time of political and religious decision-making and an economic rise of imposing strength.

After the rule of the guild was finally ended in 1547, Augsburg began its impressive development into one of the most influential trading and economic centers in the world. This was largely due to the wealth and influence of the famous Fuggers, the Augsburg merchant family who were able to steer the fate of Europe with their money and connections.

Decisions of unbelievable consequences were made in Augsburg in the following decades: At the Reichstag in Speyer (1529), the city belonged to the representatives of the evangelical minority. However, she did not take part in the famous protest, but demanded the unhindered expansion of the Lutheran denomination (= Confessio Augustana). This was formulated by Philipp Melanchthon at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530. That Confessio was nothing less than the creed and founding document of the Lutheran Church.

Another important event was the so-called Augsburg Synod of Martyrs in 1527: It was an international gathering of delegates from the Anabaptist faith. Its name hinted at the tragic fact that most of those who took part in the synod later died as martyrs.

The next important political decision was ordered by Emperor Charles V in 1548: the so-called Augsburger Interim was an imperial law that was intended to regulate the ecclesiastical and religious situation in the empire for a transitional period until a general council would finally determine the situation. The interim had to be withdrawn again in 1552. Before that, it had led to fierce opposition on both sides of the denominational spectrum.

The undisputed most important event in the history of the city so far was the establishment of the Augsburg Religious Peace, named after it, which was signed in 1555 at the Reichstag in Augsburg. Ferdinand I concluded this peace with the imperial estates – with the power of attorney from his brother Emperor Charles V. The most important provisions of the text of the treaty included: legal acceptance of Lutheran Protestants, princes’ right to choose their own religion, princes’ right of conversion (Ius reformandi), subjects’ right to emigrate (Ius emigrandi) and the establishment of the ecclesiastical property for the year 1552. The Augsburg resident Religious peace was an important stage victory for the princes over the central imperial power and the idea of ​​a universal Christian empire.

Augsburg suffered the conquest by the Swedes under Gustav II Adolf (1632) during the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648). The statue of Stoinerner Mo and the Schwedenstiege still remind of this dramatic event for the city.

Historical significance of Augsburg

Augsburg’s historical significance must be emphasized as an absolute specialty. Especially in the early modern period, political and religious decisions were made on a large scale in the city on the Lech. The city belonged to the representatives of the Protestant minority at the Reichstag in Speyer (1529). However, she did not take part in the famous protest, but demanded the unhindered expansion of the Lutheran denomination, the Confessio Augustana. This was formulated by Philipp Melanchthon at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530. That Confessio was nothing less than the creed and founding document of the Lutheran Church.

Another important event was the so-called Augsburg Synod of Martyrs in 1527: It was an international gathering of delegates from the Anabaptist faith. Its name hinted at the tragic fact that most of those attending the synod later died as martyrs. The next important political decision was ordered by Emperor Charles V in 1548: the so-called Augsburger Interim was an imperial law that was intended to regulate the ecclesiastical and religious situation in the empire for a transitional period until a general council would finally determine the situation. The interim had to be withdrawn again in 1552. Before that, it had led to fierce opposition on both sides of the denominational spectrum.

The undisputed most important event in the history of the city so far was the establishment of the Augsburg Religious Peace, named after it, which was signed in 1555 at the Reichstag in Augsburg. Ferdinand I concluded this peace with the imperial estates – with the power of attorney from his brother Emperor Charles V. The most important provisions of the text of the treaty included: legal acceptance of Lutheran Protestants, the princes’ right to choose their own religion, the princes’ right of conversion (“Ius reformandi”), the subjects’ right to emigrate (“Ius emigrandi”) and the establishment of the ecclesiastical property for the year 1552. The Augsburg Religious Peace was an important stage victory for the princes over the central imperial power and the idea of ​​a universal Christian empire.

Aschaffenburg, Germany History

Aschaffenburg, Germany History

Aschaffenburg: city history

In the records of the geographer of Ravenna (approx. 450 – 500) there is a mention of a settlement called Ascapha in the Alemannic Nordgau. Today’s Aschaffenburg. Aschaffenburg also formed the eastern center of the Electorate of Mainz for a large part of its history. Before that, the Romans ruled the area as the border region of their empire. The so-called ” wet Limes ” as the border of the Roman Empire at the Mainknie near Aschaffenburg is evidence of this era. The Romans were taken over by the Alemanni, the latter by the Franksreplaced as ruler. The Franks established the Franconian Empire here from the 8th century.

From 982 to 1814 Aschaffenburg was affiliated to the Electorate of Mainz, with its bishops as the highest authority. After Mainz, some bishops also took Aschaffenburg temporarily as their second royal seat. In 1144 the settlement developed into a market and was granted the privilege to mint 17 years later. From here began the most prosperous period in the city’s history, which lasted until the 16th century, when the city lost its coinage and other privileges as it took part in the Peasants’ War. The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) finally put an end to prosperity.

When the ecclesiastical Electorate of Mainz was dissolved in 1803, Aschaffenburg became the seat of the former Archbishop of Mainz and Elector Carl Theodor von Dalberg, who initiated the establishment of a university in Aschaffenburg in 1808, shortly before the city belonged to Austria for two years (1814-1816) and was then incorporated together with the Lower Maing area in Bavaria. Bavaria tried to find its new territories. In the German-German war of 1866, fighting between Prussia and Bavaria took place in the Aschaffenburg area.

At the end of the 19th century industrial companies began to settle in the city on a large scale. During the Second World War, the city was therefore also the target of several air raids by the Allied forces against Germany. After the war, the reconstruction began and at the same time the development as an industrial location continued.

Aschaffenburg: arrival and traffic


The most important traffic rules in Germany, which of course also apply in Aschaffenburg, can be found on thereligionfaqs.


The nearest airport to Aschaffenburg is the international airport in Frankfurt / Main, about 75 kilometers away.


The Aschaffenburger Verkehrsbetriebe has a modern fleet of buses that serve the city and the surrounding area with 17 lines.


There are numerous taxis in the city. There are almost always waiting taxis to be found at the stations at the main train station and at Freihofplatz.


From the Aschaffenburg marina you can take harbor tours, lock trips and river loop trips.
Address: Ruhlandstraße 5


Aschaffenburg is not a downright bicycle city. But the city administration has tried to expand the paths in recent years. Today the cycle path network, including bus lanes (also allowed for bicycles), is 46 kilometers.

Sightseeing flights

Airfields for small planes and glider pilots are located in Obernau or in Großostheim.


The Collegiate Church
(St. Peter and Paul)

It is the oldest building in the city. It was built in the 10th century at the behest of Otto von Schwaben. The nave, as the oldest preserved section, dates from the 12th century and has pillar arcades that lead the view towards the high altar. The chancel is equipped with a canopy from 1771. The most important works of art are the Romanesque crucifix from the early 12th century, as well as the painting of the nave and the renaissance pulpit by Hans Junker from 1602. The “Resurrection of Christ” can be seen here by Lucas Cranach and the showpiece “The Lamentation of Christ” by Mathias Grünewald. The masterpiece by Grünewald (actually Mathis Gothart Nithart) is dated around 1520 and is exhibited in the first south side chapel. The outbuildings house the city’s museum.
Address: Stiftsplatz

Our Lady
Our Lady is the oldest parish church in Aschaffenburg. On one wall of the early Gothic tower there is a tympanum from the 12th century, which represents the Mother of God between John and Catherine.
Address: Schlossgasse

Church The Sand Church is a richly decorated rococo church from 1756. The church contains a Vespers image from the 15th century.
Würzburger Strasse

Church of the former Jesuit college
The church of the former Jesuit college was built in 1621. It consists of a nave and a semicircular apse. The municipal gallery now uses the church as a space for changing art exhibitions.
Address: Pfaffengasse.

St. Agatha Church
The St. Agatha Church was built in the 12th century. The choir dates from 1280. Only the choir and the tower are preserved. The rest of the church was built in 1964 according to Heinzmenn’s plans.
Address: Erthalstraße 2a

Johannisburg Castle

Johannisburg Castle is an impressive Renaissance castle that the Bishop of Mainz and Elector Schweickard von Kronberg had built from 1605 to 1614 on the right, higher bank of the Main as a sign of his power and influence based on the designs of the Strasbourg architect Georg Ridinger. The castle keep, the mighty tower in the castle courtyard, comes from the previous building, a fortification that was destroyed in 1552. Today the imposing square with the towers towering at the corners is the symbol of the city. The reddish sandstone of the region in particular gives the castle its own character. The castle burned down during the war, but was restored down to the last detail in the post-war years. In Europe it is considered to be one of the most important buildings of the Renaissance.
Address: Schlossplatz


Seen from the palace, the Schönbusch park is on the other side of the Main. The English complex with a labyrinth, pavilions and lakes dates from the 18th century. It is one of the most beautiful parks of its kind in Germany. The Archbishop of Mainz and Elector von Erthal gave the order to build it. The executing architects were Emanuel Josep d’Herigoyen, who was also responsible for the theater, and Ludwig Sckell. The Schönbusch concerts take place here in summer.
Address: Schönbuschallee

The Schöntal Park is located in the center of the city. His magnolia home in particular is a destination for walkers and tourists. In the middle of the park are the ruins of the Holy Sepulcher Church, surrounded by a moat.
Address: Between Platanenallee and Würzburger Straße

A little further east of Schöntal Park is the pheasantry with its lake. The park is mainly used by walkers and joggers. Other visitors only come because of the beer garden located here.
Address: Deutsche Strasse

Aschaffenburg, Germany History

Getting to Germany

Getting to Germany


Arriving by plane

Germany is served by over 100 international airlines. The national airline Lufthansa (LH) alone (Internet: www.lufthansa.com) connects Germany with more than 160 cities worldwide. Thanks to the global route network and coordinated flight schedules of the Star Alliance, travelers from Germany can reach more than 720 destinations worldwide.

From Austria: Lufthansa (LH), Eurowings (EW) and Austrian Airlines (OS)fly to German airports in regular service. From Vienna there are direct connections to Berlin, Munich, Düsseldorf, Hanover, Hamburg, Cologne / Bonn, Leipzig / Halle, Nuremberg, Stuttgart and Frankfurt / M. Additional connections: Linz – Düsseldorf, Salzburg / Linz – Berlin, Graz / Innsbruck / Klagenfurt / Linz / Salzburg – Frankfurt / M. as well as Linz – Leipzig / Halle.

From Switzerland: Lufthansa, Eurowings (EW) and Swiss (LX) offer scheduled flights from Zurich to Berlin, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Munich, Hamburg, Hanover, Cologne / Bonn, Leipzig / Halle, Nuremberg, Stuttgart and Frankfurt / M. at. Additional connections: Basel – Berlin, Basel – Dresden, Basel / Geneva – Frankfurt, Basel / Geneva – Düsseldorf, Basel / Geneva – Munich.

air Berlin flies from various major German cities to Vienna and Zurich, among others.

Flight times

Vienna – Frankfurt: 1 hour 25 minutes Zurich – Frankfurt: 1 hour

Arrival by car

A first-class road network connects Germany with all neighboring countries.

Long-distance bus: Numerous coach companies regularly travel to Germany. Ua Euro Lines (website: www.eurolines.com) and Flixbus (website: www.flixbus.de) drive from Austria and Switzerland to Germany.

Arriving by train

There are excellent rail connections between the Federal Republic of Germany and its European neighbors.

The most important train connections are listed below:

There are fast EuroCity and InterCityExpress connections from Deutsche Bahn (Internet: www.bahn.de) every 1 or 2 hours to, among others, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Warsaw, Prague, Brussels, Paris, Budapest, Vienna and Zurich.

The French high-speed train TGV (Internet: http://www.tgv.com/) connects Stuttgart with Paris (journey time: 3 hours 40 minutes) and Frankfurt with Paris (journey time: 3 hours 50 minutes).

ICE -Trains with tilting technology (ICE T) run from Zurich to Munich and Stuttgart.

The Austrian Railjet (Internet: www.oebb.at) runs five times a day, the ICE-T once a day between Vienna and Munich. The Railjet also connects Munich with Budapest via Vienna.
EuroNight trains run to Vienna, Budapest, Bucharest, Warsaw, Bologna, Florence, Naples, Rome and Paris, among others.

The Nightjet – night trains (website: www.oebb.at/de/angebote-ermaessigungen/nightjet) drive, inter alia, Austria and Switzerland to Germany:

Vienna – Linz – Frankfurt – Cologne – Düsseldorf;

Vienna – Linz – Hanover – Hamburg;

Innsbruck – Munich – Hamburg;

Innsbruck – Munich – Cologne – Düsseldorf;

Vienna – Dresden – Berlin and

Zurich – Basel – Berlin – Hamburg.

Thalys – high-speed trains (website: www.thalys.com/de/de) operate daily between Cologne and Aachen to Liege, Brussels and Paris. There are tiered tariff offers on Thalys trains as well as special offers for senior citizens and young people. There is a Thalys ticket sales point in Cologne Central Station, which also sells tickets for Eurostar, TGV, Lyria, Italo, Renfe and Elipsos trains.

From Brussels and Paris there are connections with the Eurostar (Internet: www.eurostar.com) through the Channel Tunnel to London.

The ICE International Amsterdamconnects Amsterdam (Netherlands) with Frankfurt / M. via Cologne and Amsterdam with Berlin via Hanover up to seven times a day every two hours. The ICE International Brussels connects Brussels (Belgium) with Frankfurt / M three times a day. in 3 hours 30 minutes.

Tickets and discounts for rail travel in Europe:
The most important economy / combination tickets and special offers for rail travel from Germany to other European countries are listed below. Detailed tariff / timetable information is available from the DB information centers.

InterRail: Children (4-11 years), young people (12-25 years) and adults (from 26 years) who have had a permanent residence in Europe, the former Soviet states or Turkey for at least 6 months can use InterRailuse.

The InterRail One-Country Pass is available for travel in almost 30 European countries including Macedonia and Turkey and is valid for 3, 4, 6, 8 days within 1 month in one country. Children aged 4-11 travel at half the adult price.

The InterRail Global Pass enables travel through several countries and is offered with different periods of validity. Either 5 days out of 10 days total validity or 10 out of 22 can be selected. A continuous period of 22 days or 1 month is also possible.

RAILPLUS:As an addition to the BahnCard, RAILPLUS enables a reduction of 25% on cross-border rail travel to 29 European countries, but not on purely domestic transport in the destination country.

SparNight: Limited offer for overnight trips through Germany, Denmark, Italy, Austria and Switzerland. Applies to travel on EuroNight trains.

Eastern Europe saver fare: Under certain conditions, you can travel with this offer to the following Eastern European countries at a discount: Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Poland (not on the trains of the Berlin-Warszawa Express), Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. Further information is available at http://www.bahn.de/p/view/angebote/international/sparpreis.shtml.

Motorail trains
A car train will connect Lörrach with Hamburg from May 2017 (Internet: www.urlaubs-express.de).

An ÖBB car train (Internet: www.oebb.at/de/leistungen-und-services/mehr-als-zug/auto-motorrad-am-zug) runs on the routes

– between Vienna and Hamburg, Düsseldorf and

– between Innsbruck and Hamburg, Düsseldorf.

Arrival by ship

The Danube (Internet: www.danube-river.org) connects Germany with the Danube countries. A wide variety of shipping lines offer regular ferry connections to Germany. The most important of these are:

Bodenseeschifffahrt (Internet: www.bodenseeschifffahrt.de): Romanshorn / Switzerland – Friedrichshafen; Bregenz / Austria – Constance.

Color Line (Internet: www.colorline.de): Oslo / Norway – Kiel.
Krantas Shipping (Internet: http://www.randburg.com/li/krantas.html): Klaipeda / Lithuania – Kiel.

DFDS Seaways (Internet: www.dfdsseaways. Com): Klaipeda / Lithuania – Kiel.

Scandlines(Internet: www.scandlines.de): Rødby / Denmark – Puttgarden / Fehmarn; Gedser / Denmark – Rostock; Trelleborg / Sweden – Rostock; Trelleborg / Sweden – Sassnitz / Rügen; Ventspils / Latvia – Rostock.

Stena Line (Internet: www.stenaline.com): Gothenburg / Sweden – Kiel.
TT-Line (Internet: www.ttline.de): Trelleborg / Sweden – Rostock; Trelleborg / Sweden – Travemünde.

Finnlines (Internet: www.finnlines.com): Lübeck / Travemünde – Rostock – Gdynia / Poland – Helsinki / Finland).

Further information is available from the Verband der Fährschiffahrt & Fährouristik eV, Esplanade 6, D-20354 Hamburg (Tel: (040) 35 09 72 33. Internet:www.faehre-vff.de).

Getting to Germany

Shopping and Eating in Munich, Germany

Shopping and Eating in Munich, Germany

Munich is one of the largest cities in the country of Germany.

Shopping in Munich

Let’s say it right away. Shopping in Munich is fun. There is a myriad of shops and everyone in the family gets theirs! Typical souvenirs are beers of various types. For example, the trip to the wonderful beer hall Hofbräuhaus then you can buy beer seals for several thousand kroner each! Cheaper versions are of course available.

There are also a number of souvenir shops near Hofbräuhaus. Many people buy craft products of wood or porcelain from Nymphenburg. Do you really want to have a memory for life then we suggest one. Lederhosen. Unbeatable, and perfect when you don’t know what to wear when going out on the town. Maybe the perfect gift for someone who thought he had everything? If you are a woman then you buy Dirndl, this typical South German costume used by Bavarian women when they go out on a Friday night.

Shopping streets in Munich

The main shopping street in Munich defined by AbbreviationFinder is really the sum of the streets Neuhauser straße and Kaufinger straße which starts with the latter if you are on the Marienplatz square and goes all the way to Karlsplatz square. From Marienplatz to the west, the specialty shops and department stores are located in close proximity. The Kaufinger Straße pedestrian street has been one of the busiest shopping streets in Munich since the 1970s. The vast majority of people go to the nearby Arcade. In the same slab you visit Sendlinger Straße with all its smaller specialty shops, not least art galleries and poster shops. Sendlinger Straße goes southwest from Marienplatz to the medieval gate Sendlinger Tor.

If you are one of many people who like to visit exciting bookstores and have the opportunity to sit down on a cozy squeeze when it suits you, visit the streets Schellingstraße north of Altstadt and Türkenstraße. Here the price level is reasonable and the atmosphere a little quieter. If antique shops are the most tempting, you will find them in Schellingstraße and also Theatinerstraße.


Go to Leopoldstraße and turn right and you are in Schwabing with all its second hand shops, bookshops, jewelry stores and other specialty shops including the Elisabethmarkt market, which is fun to visit. No wonder this is the favorite area for students and artists. You can find a lot of wonder on several streets in Schwabing. We tip about the streets of Kaiserstraße, Hohenzollernstraße, Ainmillerstraße and Franz-Joseph-Straße.

Trendy and innovative in Munich

If you are quality conscious, have good advice and want something more avant garde then the shops in Maximilianstraße and Theatinerstraße are for you. Theatinerstraße is located just north of Marienplatz, while Maximilianstraße is not far north-east. Here you must also visit one of Munich’s newest shopping centers, Fünf Höfe. Exclusive and stylish. It has also become trendy and innovative in the Glockenbach neighborhood. Take the Hans-Sachs-Straße street and you will find very unique specialty shops. More and more young designers are opening stores in the area here.

Markets in Munich

There are several markets in Munich, with Viktuelienmmarkt being perhaps the best known. You will find Viktuelienmmarkt just off Marienplatz, where it has existed since 1807. Open every weekday from 1000 to 1800 and Saturdays from 1000 to 1500. You also have Elisabethmarkt with its cheeses, wine, fish, fruit, flowers and herbs. The market can be found at Elisabethstraße and Nordendstraße in Schwabing.

Shopping malls in Munich

You will find several major shopping malls in Munich, as well as all the well-known department stores. The largest center in all of Bavaria is called the Olympia Einkaufszentrum and has more than 130 shops and good restaurants. In the public domain, the center goes only under the name OEZ and it was built in connection with the Olympiad in 1972. The address is Hanauer Straße 68, just west of the Olympic Park itself.

Riem Arcaden
This 120-store shopping mall is one of the most popular in Munich. Here you will find many good clothing stores among many other things. You reach Riem Arcaden by taking metro U2 or U7 to Messestadt-West. You can also use bus numbers 38, 91, 263 or 264 to the shopping center.

General about shopping in Munich

The stores are usually open from 0900 to 2000 every weekday and from 0900 to 1800 Saturdays. Smaller shops can stay closed around lunch, like a kind of mini-siesta. These stores also usually close much earlier on Saturdays, e.g. at 1200.

Eating in Munich

Food in Munich, Germany

German food does not have the words to be a world leader, but there are generous portions and tasty dishes. Often the menu is dominated by meat and sausages, often with cabbage, sauces and other filling. Typical dishes in Munich are Weisswurst, Leberkaese and Schweinebraten. And food inspired from Austria. Eg. Jungschweinbraten (fried young pig) and Steirischem Backhendl salad (baked chicken salad). But you can get more sophisticated food if you want. Although the vast majority of eateries are local restaurants, international cuisine is well represented in Munich. And Munich is one of the few cities in Europe which has several restaurants with three Michelin stars.

We strongly recommend that you try a kebab while in Munich. It is no joke, because there are several genuinely real kebabs around the train station (Hauptbahnhof). In addition to a number of affordable hotels, this area has also attracted immigrants from among others. Turkey. This results in many kebab places where the food is very good and cheap.

When it comes to drinks, it is mainly beer, be it Löwenbräu, Augustiner or another of the local breweries. And beer is consumed by everyone, regardless of age and gender. But there is plenty of good wine available, whether it is German or imported. Beer costs about half of what we are used to from Norway, and beer is often served in liters in the beer gardens.

Some selected restaurants in Munich

This restaurant has been an institution since it opened in 1971. The honors are many, whether they are stars in the Michelin Guide or design awards. For a thousand dollars you get a fantastic five course dinner. And afterwards, relax with a cocktail and cigar in the restaurant’s bar area. The address is Johann-Fichte-Strasse 7, north of Schwabing.

With the best location in the city, in the middle of Marienplatz, you will find this great restaurant with history from 1874. The food is from Bavarian cuisine and you can hardly get this better anywhere else. Are you a whole bunch on tour, then contact the restaurant to get your own stüberl (own room). Open from 1000 to 2400.

Schnitzelwirt in Spatenhof
Wienersnitzel is something everyone loves. And it is very good in Munich. And very best at Schnitzelwirt in Spatenhof. And the variations are many. You can get pork, calf or turkey. The classic version can also be replaced with one with clam sauce and noodles. And the schnitzelen is enjoyed in cozy surroundings.
The address is Neuhauser Straße 39.

Al Pacino
There are many Italian restaurants in Munich and it is a good option if you want a reasonably priced meal. Al Pacino is a stylish name for an Italian restaurant, and it is also on a great street in a pleasant area, more specifically Leopoldstrasse 87 in Schwabing.

Schwabing is also an area where restaurants are crowded. The quality, however, is generally so, but here the youth come in droves and probably for the atmosphere and atmosphere, rather than to enjoy gourmet food.

Generally about eating in Munich

The price level is not bad at all. If you go to local restaurants or a pizzeria it is not uncommon for you to have dinner and drinks for a hundred. Usually you give between 5% and 10% in tips. Very many restaurants have about the same menu for lunch as for dinner. But the lunch price is often significantly lower.

The Biergarten in Munich

You can dine at a Biergarten. Of course, depending on the weather and temperature, but it is suitable for eating out, there is little to pay a visit to a beer garden. Some selected beer gardens are:

Chinese Tower in Englischer Garten
Large beer garden in the middle of the huge park Englischer Garten. In addition, there is often entertainment on the weekends.

This is no less than Munich and the world’s largest beer garden with its 8,000 seats. Located in Neuhausen a little outside Munich city center.

Augustiner is one of Munich’s most popular beer gardens. Located in Arnulfstraße 52.

Dropp Hard Rock Cafe which is right next to the Hofbräuhaus and instead go into this huge tourist party with 3500 seats and which has a mini-edition of Oktoberfest all year round. The address is Am Platzl 9, just off Marienplatz. Definitely worth a visit, and the prices are still nice enough that the place attracts plenty of local residents.

Shopping and Eating in Hamburg, Germany

Shopping and Eating in Hamburg, Germany

Hamburg is one of the largest cities in the country of Germany.

Shopping in Hamburg

For many, Hamburg defined by AbbreviationFinder may not be the first choice if one comes exclusively for shopping. When it comes to clothes and shoes, there is probably not much greater selection or lower prices than in the largest Nordic cities.

But of course you will find all the major chains like most other European cities. In addition, there are a number of small and exciting specialty shops you can visit.

In any case, Hamburg concludes that there are enough shopping malls, arcades, markets and warehouses to allow those shopping malls to spend a lot of time and money here too.

The best shopping streets in Hamburg

The main shopping areas are Europapassage, Spitalerstrasse, Jungfernstieg, Hanseviertel and Mönckebergstrasse, which extend from the Hauptbahnhof to the City Hall. Gänsemarkt is an indoor three-storey shopping street with glass roofs, where there are shops close by. Opening hours are 1000 to 2000 every day of the week except Sundays where it is closed.

Also try the Altemarkt Passage on Poststraße just off the Town Hall, with its many clothing stores. In the street Poststraße you will also find the Porsche Design store. Here you will find a number of products with the best Porsche design. We talk about clothes, sports articles, leather goods, suitcases, jewelery and lots of other things. Cheap? The answer is no.

Porsche Design is open from 1000 – 1900 every day except Saturdays where it closes one hour earlier and Sundays where it closes. The address is Poststraße 2. It is no more than a few hundred meters north of the City Hall in Altstadt.

For fashion enthusiasts in Hamburg

Those interested in fashion should take a closer look at the designer shops in the artist quarters Karoviertel and Schanzenviertel. This is also the hangout for many independent small shops and art galleries.

One of Hamburg’s oldest buildings is the Kaufmannshaus at Bleichenbrücke. This is now modernized and contains many interesting craft shops, galleries and cafes.

In the areas west and southwest of Binnenalster, the many pedestrian streets have been given new passages and arcades, where it is teeming with small shops and eateries. The absence of car traffic makes this a very pleasant neighborhood to stroll around in the afternoon.

If you are looking for something besides the mass produced, you should visit the Eppendorf area or the quarters around the university. Here are the small bookstores, wine shops, thrift stores, pubs and wine bars, craft shops, spice, tea and coffee houses.

Budapest Outlet

Shoes from Budapest are not cheap, but in their outlet shop located in Große Johannisstr. 9 you can make a bargain. Here are plenty of women’s and men’s shoes for the benefit of anyone with footwear. Große Johannisstrasse just off St Peters Church and Hamburg City Hall.

Markets in Hamburg

Hamburg has several outdoor markets. Most offer fresh vegetables, fruits, flowers, meat and fish. But by all means, there are plenty of options. Among other things, it is fun to catch up with the buzzing life of Hamburg’s 300-year-old Fish Market, which takes place at Landungsbrücke every Sunday morning from 0500. And despite the name, fish is not the main product here, you will also find used goods, CDs, jewelery, crafts, souvenirs and fruits.

Visit Harry’s Hafenbasar at Landungsbrücke, which is open every day except Mondays. Here you will find handicraft art from all over the world. NB! It costs a few ten kroner to get in. Open from 1000 to 1800.

General about shops in Hamburg
Most shops are open from 0900 to 1800 or 1900 on weekdays, often with long hours open until 2000 or later on Thursdays. Saturdays most stores close at 1400 or 1500, and Sundays are mostly closed.

Tax Free Shopping in Hamburg

Don’t forget that you pay VAT and that on all purchases over 25 euros you can get a refund of the VAT on departure.

Not all stores have a VAT refund scheme, so look for the Tax Free Shopping badge at the entrance to buy expensive products. Remember to bring a completed and stamped form and receipt.

Eating in Hamburg

Food in Hamburg, Germany

Few dishes are as closely associated with a city as the hamburger is with Hamburg, although many of us may never have even thought about it.

The hamburger is said to have been named after a German immigrant from Hamburg who sold a dish of roasted, ground beef in New York in the 1850s. Customers named the dish after the chef and the chef’s hometown, and the name has remained ever since. The hamburger was really what the Germans called (and still call) a meatball, which in practice is a large and thick meat cake served with sauce, potatoes and vegetables.

But luckily you get more than hamburgers in Hamburg. The range of ethnic eateries is huge and you will find Indian, Chinese, Greek, Turkish, Persian, Vietnamese and Mexican restaurants in Hamburg. There are also no other German cities that have several eateries awarded with stars in the Michelin guide, which guarantees both quality and a significant contribution to the holiday budget.

The food culture in northern Germany is not particularly foreign to us Scandinavians, and is close to Danish cuisine.

Traditionally it is often sausages, stews with meat and vegetables, and naturally enough for a port city there is a lot of fish and seafood to get. The portions are usually large and filling. And even for vegetarians, there are several places where you can have a snack. Tassajara in Eppendorf Landstrasse 14 is one of several good vegetarian restaurants and has been around since 1976. Here you will find vegan food, vegetarian food, lactose-free food, and the place also has beer and wine. Read more about Vegetarian restaurants in Hamburg here.

Fischerhaus in Hamburg

From the seafood restaurants we will highlight Fischerhaus, a family run place where you can dine overlooking the Elbe. Exceptionally good selection in everything from eel or herring to salmon or lobster. Saturating positions at very affordable prices, and here you actually get child positions. The address is St Pauli Fischmarkt 14.

Cafe Paris

How about a visit to a quality bistro with French ancestry in the middle of beautiful Hamburg? Cafe Paris in Rathausstraße 4 (Altstadt) is a place you only have to go with if you are lucky enough to get a table. Open from 0900 to 2330 all day. Good lunch and dinner with a variety of dishes. Great value for money at Cafe Paris.

Trattoria da Enzo

If you make the trip to Wexstraße 34 west of Stadthausbrücke and not too far from Altstadt you come to a restaurant that oozes charm and atmosphere. Popular prices too. Here you get the best of what is known in Italy and Germany. Open daily until 11 pm, except Sundays where it is closed. Great feedback and an interior that keeps the whole family going.

Germany has a vibrant pub culture, and most pubs and beer pubs also serve food. Many people enjoy The Irish Rover in Grossneumarkt, which markets itself as a small piece of Ireland in Hamburg, and it feels that way too. Here you can both stop in for a filling lunch or to have fun in the evening for live music.

It is also not dangerous to stroll around the Reperbahn or have a beer or three as long as you behave normally. There are pubs, bars and more. And a snack you can get at very reasonable prices.

If you visit the Groser Freiheit cross street you are in the “Beatles Street”. Go for example. “all the way” to Indra Club 64 and visit a club that oozes history and which many tourists overlook. NB! Indra Club 64 rarely opens early.

Drink in Hamburg

With the exception of the Irish and the Czechs, no one drinks more beer than the Germans, and the beer is a natural part of daily life and culture. Like the English, it is quite common and socially acceptable for the Germans to pop in a beer bar for a couple of beers after work, whatever the day of the week.

Germany has nearly 1400 different breweries, more than any other country except the United States. The most popular is the light pilsner beer, but here also countless other types of beer are produced, from the silky weiss beer to the dark beech. The beer in Germany is usually a few per cent stronger than the Norwegian one at 4.5%.

It does not breed from vineyards in the Hamburg district, but at Lübeck, wine has long been produced from grapes picked and pressed in France, and then shipped in wooden barrels to Lübeck. Interested parties should try the local specialty Rotspon, and visit the wine connoisseurs von Melle in B eckergrube 86 in Lübeck, where you can test over 350 different types of wine.

Shopping and Eating in Frankfurt, Germany

Shopping and Eating in Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt is one of the largest cities in the country of Germany.

Shopping in Frankfurt

Frankfurt defined by AbbreviationFinder may not be the first place to go for a shopping trip, because it is not very affordable. But the selection is very good, and Frankfurt has one of Germany’s foremost shopping streets, the 1.2 kilometer long Die Zeil. Zeil is called Germany’s answer to 5th Avenue in New York. The western part, between the two major squares Hauptwache and Konstablerwache is the pedestrian zone, and here it is teeming with shops, shopping centers and department stores.

Just west of the Hauptwache is the street Grosse Bockenheimerstrasse, or Fressgasse (Slafsegaten) as the town’s inhabitants call it, because of the many eateries, restaurants and delicatessen.

Those looking for designer boutiques and exclusive fashion should set the course for Goethestrasse, while younger ones may prefer to try Schweitzerstrasse in the Sachsenhausen district. The Bohemians will surely thrive in Bergerstrasse in Nordend, with its many specialty shops, Asian and African stores, second hand shops and galleries.

Some shopping tips from the Travel Plan in Frankfurt

The Hallhuber in Goethestrasse 4 (Innenstadt) is perfect for women (and men) looking for clothes. Have been for a long time the place people in Frankfurt visit for trendy clothes at reasonable prices.

Shoes & News is the shoe store you should visit in Frankfurt. The address is Mörfelder Landstraße 109a. Here you will find designer shoes that will not ruin you. Open 0930 to 1830 on weekdays and 1000 to 1500 Saturdays. Do not mix the store with the more exclusive store next door that is only called First. More expensive, but even more trendy.

Ölderado at the same address specializes in delicacies and oils. A shop for the senses and gourmet people. Ölderado is open Wednesdays to Saturdays, from 1400 to 2000 Wednesday and Thursday, 1100 – 2000 Friday and 1100 to 1600 Saturday.

Douglas Store
What do you say to 3 floors with everything a woman’s heart can desire? If you are going to buy cosmetics, do it here. Douglas Store is located in the large shopping center Zeilgalerie, address Zeil 100. Open 1000 to 2000 Monday to Saturday.

If you like street markets and flea markets, try Alla Vita Bueno in Hasengasse 5-7, which is a popular street market.

In general about shopping in Frankfurt

The stores are generally open from 10am. 1000 to 2000 or 1800 Monday to Friday, and from 1000 to 1600. Most shops are closed on Sundays, but there are exceptions. And don’t forget that for items that cost a little you can get a refund of the VAT at the airport on your return journey. Not all stores have this scheme, so feel free to ask first, or look for the Tax Free Shopping sign at the entrance.

Eating in Frankfurt

Food in Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt is well associated primarily with Frankfurter, ie sausages, by most of us. And enjoy eating sausages in Frankfurt. Just remember that you have to forget what you know about this dish for the Germans know how sausages are made. And fill with sauerkraut, mashed potatoes and beer or sides.

Visit Affentor-Schanke in Neuer Wall 9 in Sachsenhausen to taste such a local favorite. A Frankfurter or “Franks” as they say in the United States is usually made from pork, smoked and cooked.

Huge selection of restaurants in Frankfurt

Frankfurt will give you more than enough opportunities to enjoy the delights of the dining table. The most important area for affordable food is north of the city center, at Opernplatz and Rathenauplatze. Many residents recommend Grosse Bockenheimerstrasse and Kalbaecherstrasse streets for eating out. Grosse Bockenheimerstrasse is often called Fressgasse (Slafsegaten) [see image first in the article] by the city’s inhabitants because of the many eateries, restaurants and delicatessen shops.

If you are looking for more bohemian restaurants then the Bockenheim area is a good choice. Here you can visit a squeeze (with a positive sign) and take a Handkäs mit Musik, which is a cheese dish, and rinse it with beer or Ebbelwoi, a kind of apple wine. If you do not find any things that are tempting, which however should be well done, we recommend a trip to Römerberg. Or why not go to Sachsenhausen, which tempts local dishes at its many cider houses?

In the city’s main street, Zeil, there are plenty of restaurants naturally, and many of the well-known chain restaurants can be found here.

Some recommended restaurants in Frankfurt

Da Franco
A real Italian pizza restaurant in Saalburgstrasse 41. The food is cheap and good. The location in Bronheim makes Da Franco a little beyond the main tourist areas.

Alternatively, choose Dichtung & Wahrheit, which blends Italian and German cuisine. Here the food is a little more expensive and a little more varied. The address is Am Salzhaus 1 and the opening hours are enjoyable enough for 0200 Fridays and Saturdays, and at 0100 at night the other days.

Zum Wasserweibchen
This restaurant is included in most travel guides and is known for its large portions and good quality. The Zum Wasserweibchen is located in Am Mühlberg 57 and is open from Sunday to Friday between 1700 and 0100.

We must also mention an Indian restaurant called Jewel of India and located in Wilhelm-Hauff-Strasse 5. One of the better Indian restaurants in Frankfurt without being ruined for that reason.

You can also have a better dinner with a glorious panoramic view of Frankfurt in the restaurant located 187 meters above ground level in the Main Tower. This is considered one of Frankfurt’s more exclusive culinary restaurants, and the price level matches its location; loud.

Shopping and Eating in Dusseldörf, Germany

Shopping and Eating in Dusseldörf, Germany

Dusseldörf is one of the largest cities in the country of Germany.

Shopping in Dusseldörf

What is the typical souvenir if we are to ignore postcards, beer glasses or glass with a picture of the town hall is not so easy to say. But a beautiful cup of the city’s very special mustard will remind you of Düsseldorf every time you eat it.

Another popular souvenir is the Kräuterlikören Killepitsch. With its blood red color and the combination of almost 100 herbs, berries and spices you get something very special in the bar cabinet.

Are you not looking for souvenirs, but clothes, shoes, or other trendy products? Then you can start saving money now. For Düsseldorf is a shopping paradise. It is only Berlin that can compare with the shopping in Düsseldorft defined by AbbreviationFinder at home in Germany.

Shopping street queue

Everyone goes to “Kö” or Köningsalle as the street is really called. Here you can find a lot of jewelery, jewelery shops, galleries and the most expensive brand shops. Kö is considered to be the shopping street with the highest rent in Germany. This is usually a sure sign of the street being popular, the goods expensive and the economy of the district good.

Do you dream of the department stores Galleria, Saturn and Karstadt ? Of course, all these German favorites can also be found along Kö. In the same sledge you can take with you Schadowstrasse which is known for its many department stores and not least the Schadow Arcade. It is stubbornly claimed that this street has even higher turnover than more Kö.

Fashion streets in Düsseldorf

If you want to try to find the latest new, then head to Ackerstraße in Flingern. This area is east of Düsseldorf and is often separated with Flingern north and Flingern south. Ackerstrasse is in the middle, roughly in line with, but east of, the Hofgarten. The trend shops here can compare with the best in Berlin.

You can also find fashion in the Lorettostraße in Bilk, south of Altstadt. Fashionable shoppers also take the trip to Tußmannstraße in Pempelfort northeast of Altstad and northwest of Flingern.

Markets in Düsseldorf

The Christmas market in Düsseldorf is legendary. This is mostly because of the old Christmas tradition. A trip to Düsseldorf in December is a great way to get into the Christmas mood.

Elsewhere in the year, the Saturday market at Aachener Platz applies. It is located 4 kilometers south of Altstad, in the Flehe district.

In the Karlstadt district just south of Altstadt you will find the main square of Carlsplatz. This weekend, the popular markets are organized here, with an emphasis on food, fruits and vegetables. We also include the monthly market Radschläger-Markt which takes place on Ulmenstraße, about 5 kilometers north of Altstadt.

Check with the tourist office about the Radschläger-Markt arranged when in town. This market attracts people from far and near.

Food and drink in Dusseldörf

German food is considered by many to be a little solid and “heavy”. Large portions, yes, but not much more. And sausages and sauerkraut are not just a stereotyping of food in Germany. You actually get it everywhere. But it is actually good to have a “wurst” when you need food quickly! For the sausages here are much better than at home.

Most famous in food is probably Düsseldorf due to the fact that the city together with Dijon in France makes a very special mustard served in a traditional Mosterpöttche.

Traditional dishes in Düsseldorft

Since you are now in Rhienland, there are certain dishes you should try. What about Rheinischer Sauerbraten ? Fried beef is marinated in vinegar and herbs. Or Muscheln Rheinischer Art which is a traditional dish with mussels? If you are brave, try Himmel und Änd, which is a pudding with potato chips and apples. It is much better than it may sound.

Given the mustard tradition, you should also try the Düsseldorfer Senfrostbraten which is beef with mustard. And don’t forget Ähzezupp. Better than here you do not get pea soup.

It is literally teeming with eateries in Düsseldorf. Especially in the old town, but in general the offer is good almost all over the city. Germans love to dine out, and in a modern metropolis like Düsseldorf, the offer is covered with everything from typical German treats, through traditional beer halls and brattwürst stalls, to international fast food chains and all the world’s cuisine.

Some selected restaurants in Dusseldorf:

Food in Dusseldorf, Germany

Alberobello on Dorotheenstraße 104 in Flingern, east of Altstadt, is known for its excellent Italian food, at a reasonable price. Maybe this is the place where you get the most money for all of Dusseldorf?

Robert’s Bistro
Robert’s Bistro in Wupperstraße 2 in Düsseldorf-Hafen (Medienhafen), south of Altstadt, is recognized as one of the best restaurants in the city. Might be described as a French restaurant. They do not take a table reservation, so show up with patience.

Bug and Meerbar
In the same area as Robert’s Bistro, more specifically at Zollhof 13, you will find the fish restaurant Bug. Stylish rooms and good food.

If you have very good advice, you may be eating your fish at Meerbar. Then you also have to visit the Gehry houses. It doesn’t get any nicer. The address of Meerbar is Neuer Zollhof 1.

El Amigo Primo Lopez
El Amigo Primo Lopez makes us run to the old town every time. This is something as nice as an Argentine steak restaurant. Have you ever tasted steak from Argentina, you will never forget it. The address is Schneider-Wibbel-Gasse 9

Altbier in Düsseldorf

In Düsseldorf you have to drink Altbier or “old-beer” which dates back to the early 1800s. Schumacker breweries in 1838 were the first to start with this beer type.

Pubs with their own brewery leading Altbier are Füchschen, Schumacher, Schlüssel and Uerige and all are located in the old town, with the exception of Schumacher which is located between the railway station (Haupthbahnhof) and the old town (Altstadt).

Braueri im Füschen
We would like to recommend Braueri im Füschen in Ratinger straße 28. You drink Altbier and eat Sauerbraten!

Shopping and Eating in Bremen, Germany

Shopping and Eating in Bremen, Germany

Bremen is one of the largest cities in the country of Germany.

Shopping in Bremen

Bremen defined by AbbreviationFinder is a compact city and it is easy for happy tourists to reach just about what is in store in the city looking for trendy clothes, antiques or bargains. Of course, Bremen cannot compete against metropolises such as Paris, Milan or London when it comes to department stores, shopping malls and specialty shops, but the selection is by no means bad and significantly better than many other cities of similar size.

The area around the market square and the town hall in the center offers many shops and of course markets. Bremen’s most famous and most visited shopping streets are Sögestrasse and Obernstrasse. Sögestrasse is known for its fashion boutiques. But if you are looking for the really trendy and expensive, then you should know that these stores are gathered around Fedelhören, where you will also find antique shops and delicatessens.

The Schnoor district is more than great 16th century architecture. Here you will find specialty shops selling handicraft products, jewelery, food and much more. Schnoor is a popular place for shopping for both tourists and Bremen’s own inhabitants. Schnoor also offers galleries and patisseries. It is nice to know that many of Schnoor’s shops and galleries are open on Sundays, normally between 1100 and 1600 in the period April through December. And if you are looking for souvenirs this is the area to visit.

To many, the Ostertor district east of Am Wall is also a popular place to shop.

Shopping centers in Bremen

There are several major shopping malls and department stores in Bremen. We have made a small selection of the most popular. A large and renowned shopping center is the Huchting Roland Center. This is located in Alter Dorfweg 30.

Bremen’s largest center is the Weserpark shopping center and you can find this at Hans-Bredow-Straße 19. The Weserpark Center is usually open until 2000 every day and is in fact one of Germany ‘s largest shopping centers.

Another very popular department store is the Karstadt Warenhaus located in Obernstrasse 5.

Shop under the roof of Bremen or visit flea markets?

Lloyd Passage in the Große Hundestraße / Kreyenstraße offers a number of exciting shops under the roof. And you will definitely want to visit the Domshof Pass, which offers miles of shopping opportunities under glass roofs. There are many great and expensive shops here.

Remember to visit the Weserflohmarkt, which is a flea market by the river. You can find the flea market at Schlachte and the Weser promenade on Saturdays, while on Sundays you can find the Burgerweide. Normally open from 1000 to 1600. There are often hundreds of sales stalls with all kinds of rarities in addition to the usual of clothing and furniture in these flea markets.

Souvenirs in Bremen

The residents of Bremen love beer and sweets. Why not buy Kluten, a local sweets, with you home from Bremen? The cloth is small peppermint seals. Near the town hall you will find a traditional candy shop called Hachez which has a large selection of Cloth and other sweets.

Bremen is a large maritime city and Antikitaten B&M in the street Fedelhorn 19 sells ship antiques. Make sure the price is in line with the product before you strike. Anyway, this is an exciting store to visit, even if you’re only there to take a look.

Itinerary’s outlet tips in Bremen

The Factory Outlet Center is located in Bremer Strasse in Bremen Brinkum. Here it is open Monday to Friday from 0900 to 2000 and on Saturdays 0900 to 1200. You will find brand clothing from Tommy Hilfiger, Nike, Adidas, Mexx and several others at greatly reduced prices.

Generally about shopping in Bremen

The shops in Bremen are usually open between 0900 and 1900/2000, Mondays to Saturdays. Some major centers and magazines, as well as specialty shops, are also open Sundays.

Eating in Bremen

Food in Bremen, Germany

You who love food and nightlife have something to look forward to in Bremen. After all, the city is a great university town with all that it entails. Tough competition provides high quality, breadth of selection and reasonable prices. And as in almost all German cities, you’ll find plenty of cozy cafes and beer bars where locals eat their food and have a beer or five. Try one of the cafés and eateries in and around Schlachte. Slaughter is popular both among the Bremen residents themselves and visitors.

The Schnoor district is known for slightly more expensive eateries. If you are looking for a little more exclusive, you are here. Otherwise, there are restaurants scattered around the city, but most are along the river and in the downtown core.

Featured dining options in Bremen

We have selected some restaurants with good feedback in Bremen:

Kiefert in Unserer Lieben Frauen Kirchhof 27 is one of the best and most enjoyable food places in Bremen without it being said to be a traditional restaurant. What is it? Yes, a place where you eat the most aretic German there is, a Bratwurst. Kiefert is located just off St. Peter’s Cathedral and has the best sausages in town. Feel free to buy a Hausmacher, a home-made potato salad, as an accessory for your Bratwürst.

There are many Turkish immigrants in Germany and it naturally influences the restaurant life. Try the very popular Tendüre in Bürgermeister-Schmidt-Strasse 82. Hair gives you delicious Turkish food. Tendüre is open from 1200 to 1500 and 1800 to 2400 every day. (Read about Turkey)

A reasonably priced restaurant alternative is Rotkäppchen, located in Am Dobben 97. This bistro-like restaurant has both a chef and waiters who give of themselves and create a pleasant evening for their guests. And don’t close it until 01:00 either.

If you want to eat more exclusively go to the Bestial restaurant in Schwachhauser Heerstrasse 280. Here you have plenty to choose from, from the simplest such as piazza, to gourmet-class dishes. The dishes cost from about NOK 40 to NOK 250.

Nightlife in Bremen

The nightlife of Bremen is lively and many seek out the old traditional beer halls. After all, you are visiting Becks hometown! The beer halls are buzzing with life, where both women and men, young and old alike, crash down large glasses of beer as the most natural thing in life. The atmosphere is always homely and pleasant. A tip might be Paulaner’s on Schlachte 30 at the riverbank in Old Town. Both interior and atmosphere are in the traditional German beer hall style.

For the later night we can recommend the La Habana, Sinatra’s, Rembertiring and Liffass bars at Osterstorsteinweg. Bremen also has plenty of music scenes for all types of music and nightclubs and bars for those who want to find their own favorite place.

Shopping and Eating in Berlin, Germany

Shopping and Eating in Berlin, Germany

Berlin is one of the largest cities in the country of Germany.

Shopping in Berlin

All cities as big as Berlin have plenty of shopping. Berlin has shopping malls and department stores in every neighborhood. The most popular areas among tourists are the streets Friedrichsstraße, Schöneberg and Kurfürstendamm. You will find markets around Tiergarten and Museums-Linden, and especially on Saturdays.

Many shopping malls start at Potsdamer Platz and the Arcade there. Remember that you can shop VAT-free in Germany when you come from a country outside the EU.

It is not so easy to find the best shops in Berlin, so for the most shopping enthusiast there are in fact private individuals and companies who specialize in arranging private shopping trips. As the Berliners themselves say: “we have everything, just not in one place”.

Trade in art and antiques is extensive in Berlin defined by AbbreviationFinder, and especially in East Berlin the number of galleries has skyrocketed. Antique shops can be found everywhere, but first and foremost visit the area around Ludwigkirchplatz at Kurfürstendamm. If you go to an auction, you can get both art and antiques. One of the most recognized auction houses is Villa Grisebaach, which specializes in 19th-century paintings.

Department stores in Berlin

Top quality and a variety of goods can be found in the KaDeWe or Kaufhaus Des Westens department store, located at Wittenbergplatz not far from Kurfürstendamm. The alternative is Karstadt, formerly Wertheim, which is located on the Kurfürstendamm itself. The address is Kurfürstendamm 231. Karstadt also has a branch at Hermannplatz. Normally, Karstadt is open from 1000 to 2000 every day except Sunday.

Markets in Berlin

There are many flea markets and used markets in Berlin, the capital of Germany described on Countryaah. The most popular market may be found on the street Straße on 17 June. Here, tourists and residents alike buy various handicraft products, used clothing, jewelry, music and all kinds of rarities. The market does not feel ashamed to be in an exclusive location in the city, with its relatively high prices. It is not far from the Zoo Station and the Technical Museum. Open Saturdays and Sundays from 6 p.m. 1000 to 1700.

Here you will find the market in Straße on the 17th of June in Berlin

Alternatively we can recommend the market in Heidestraße 10 at Tiergarten. Opening hours are Saturday and Sunday at. 1000 to 1800. There are fewer tourists and cheaper prices. The market has lots of books, porcelain and furniture.

Second hand stores in Berlin

There are many second hand stores in Berlin, and they sell all kinds of goods. Try the streets Schivelbeiner Straße and Malmöer Straße. What about a thrift store with 5-6 large rooms full of items like music, books, photos, cameras and the like? The place actually has no name, but is easy to find from Schönhauser Allee.

For specialty shops and the little something special we suggest you go exploring in the district of Mitte and the street Hackescher Mark.

Eating in Berlin

Eating in Berlin, Germany

Berlin as a city is, after all, an international metropolis, so here you will find all the world’s cuisine and a breadth of restaurants ranging from the finest in the gourmet genre to all the well-known fast food chains you certainly know before.

German cuisine may not have the words to be on par with, for example, French and Italian, but offers more of solid home cooking. The typical Berlin food is tasty and powerful, with a large selection of local ingredients ranging from eel to forest mushrooms. The two most typical dishes in Berlin are potato soup and currywurst. The former is served at all local quips and German restaurants in Berlin. For example, try Potato Soup with marjoram and pork sausage in slices. Curry sausage is most easily compared to what we get in our sausage stalls. You will find it on all street corners and are spicy sausage, tomato ketchup and bread.

Of course, other kitchens are home to many Italian restaurants, both trattorias and pizzerias. Due to many immigrants from Turkey and Greece, there are also many restaurants from these countries. Try a kebab (mutton) in the area around Kottbuser Tor or at the street Oranienstraβe.

There are also many high quality oriental and Mexican restaurants in Berlin. For those of you who like oriental food, we suggest you go to Savignyplatz and along Prenzlauer Berg. If you have a love for tex-mex food, then head to the Kreutzberg area.

In general, you will find most restaurants around Savignyplatz, Kollwitzplatz (near Kurfürstendamm) and Oranienburger Straβe (at Alexanderplatz). For those with particularly good advice and who are looking for Berlin’s best restaurants, you may want to seek out the most exclusive hotels (if you are not staying at one). These hotels, such as Hotel Palace Berlin, all usually have very good restaurants.

Some special restaurant tips for Berlin:

This Austrian restaurant with music by Mozart in the background and a fantastic cuisine is a classic in Berlin. Expensive, but good. Known for its wine list and high quality food. The address is Kantstraβe 153.


Here you can sit 207 meters above the ground in the TV tower while Berlin within 30 minutes rotates under you. The price level is not too bad, but you cannot pre-book tables and must be prepared to queue and wait.

La Lagnata
This restaurant is Italian with Tuscan specialties. Affordable and popular with many regulars. The address is Spielhagenstraβe 3, which is at the Schloss Charlottenburg.

This is a traditional and historic restaurant with international cuisine. The food is reasonable in terms of quality. Many of the politicians in Berlin will probably have this restaurant as their favorite. The address is Französische Straβe 47, by Unter den Linden.

Drink in Berlin

In Germany, beer is drunk, and although most restaurants have wide-ranging wine lists, many of the local residents prefer pils. Most popular is draft beer. Feel free to try the Berliner Kindl and Engelhardt beer types. The quality of these is among the best in the world. A specialty in Berlin is Berliner Weisse mit Schuss. This slightly watery and sour beer should be mixed with syrup or raspberry juice and then become a wonderfully refreshing drink.

Of more special quips in Berlin we can mention the city’s oldest, Zur Letzten Instanz, [see photo first in article] which opened its doors in 1621. Over the centuries they have had guests such as Napoleon, Maxim Gorky, Mikhail Gorbachev and Jaques Chirac. Zur Letzen Instanz is located in Waisenstraβe 14-16, just south of Alexanderplatz.