Category: Europe

Denmark Medieval Sculpture and Painting

Denmark Medieval Sculpture and Painting

Sculpture

The most interesting cases of sculpture in Denmark consist of baptismal fonts, documented by numerous examples. In Scania, for example. in Löderup and Tryde, some of them of monumental dimensions are preserved, adorned with complex theological representations among which, as in other examples of Jutland, the lion motif is extremely widespread, also present in the decoration of the portals. Scania is affected by the model of the Lund cathedral, while in Jutland three column groups can be identified, influenced by the cathedrals of Ribe, Viborg and Schleswig. The most important examples of Danish Romanesque sculpture are constituted by the nine antependia in gilded bronze, two of which preserved in the churches of Stadil and Sahl (Jutland), one in Lyngsjö (Scania), another in Nuremberg (Germanisches Nationalmus.) and the other five in Copenhagen (Nationalmus.). The dating of these works oscillates between 1140 ca. (altar of Lisbjerg; Copenhagen, Nationalmus.) and the first decades of the 13th century (altar of the church of Stadil). Of the same period is a series of crucifixes, such as eg. those of Aaby and Tirstrup, of the century. 12 ° (Copenhagen, Nationalmus.), Which present the particular iconography of the crowned Christ. The imposing crucifix (1225) of the choir of the Roskilde cathedral (preserved in a fragmentary state in Copenhagen, Nationalmus.), Which was especially schooling in the eastern Danish area, has a strong French inspiration; an excellent example is the large ivory crucifix from Herlufsholm Abbey, probably produced in Roskilde. use of brick, architectural decoration disappeared and for the rest of the Middle Ages the production of stone sculptures was rather limited. The major examples of Gothic sculpture are from the fourteenth century. In the church of the Cistercian complex of Sorö are preserved the funerary monuments of the Danish royals, including the sarcophagi of Christopher II (died in 1332), of Queen Eufemia (died in 1331) and of his son Valdemaro Atterdag (died in 1375), the decoration of which however has practically disappeared; in the cathedral of Roskilde there is the funerary monument of his daughter, Queen Margaret (d. 1412), which has alabaster decorations. The decoration of the choir stalls of Lund Cathedral, where Stories from the Old Testament, Prophets and Months are also depicted in the fourteenth century.

Painting

The oldest panel paintings are represented by figures of saints in trilobate frames that decorated the altarpiece of the monastery of Lögum, from c. 1325. (Copenhagen, Nationalmus.). Among the works of the late Gothic period, the altarpiece of the church of Nöddebo (Sjaelland), depicting a Crucifixion with the patrons, and another, much restored, coming from the Carmelite convent of Helsingör (Copenhagen, Nationalmus.), Where it is represented the Last Judgment together with the two reigning patrons, Christian II and Elizabeth. Of the murals – in addition to the paintings preserved in the churches of the Jutland region, from the first half of the century. 12th, such as those of Örreslev, Tamdrup and Ferring – the extensive decoration of the choir of the church of Raasted (Jutland), which constitutes the the most complete and important example of Scandinavian Romanesque painting, where the cycles of the Infancy and the Passion of Christ are depicted and, on the triumphal arch, the Traditio legis and together with the apostles, the Virgin and St. Michael slaying the dragon. Some characters, which denounce the presence of primitive elements of Gothic painting, suggest a dating towards the end of the 12th century for this cycle. The decoration of the church of the royal foundation of Vä (Scania) dates back a few decades earlier (c. 1170), which presents Christ in majesty in the apse basin surrounded by the symbols of the four evangelists and, in the barrel vault of the choir, twenty-four medallions inside which are represented the celestial choirs singing the Te Deum. The particular quality level and the commissioning of the church, linked to Valdemaro I.

Denmark Painting

Dresden, Germany History

Dresden, Germany History

Dresden goes back to the Slavic village Drezdzany (“Settlers at the Forest”) located at an old Elbe crossing. The Elbe valley area, which has been Slavically populated since the 7th century, appeared in 1004 as the Sorbian residential district Nisan (i); after 968 part of the later so-called Mark Meißen, it came in 1144 to the Wettin margraves of Meißen, who in the course of the German settlement in the east had a castle built around 1150 on the site of the later (from 1530) castle. To the south of it, in the third quarter of the 12th century, following an older merchant settlement, the city of Dresden was laid out with a regular floor plan (first mentioned in 1206, named Civitas in 1216); the city wall (attested in 1299) enclosed the castle, but not an older Sorbian market settlement (so-called old Dresden). Together with the earlier Sorbian settlement of Altendresden, known as Nisan until 1370, on the right bank of the Elbe (municipal law 1403; incorporated as New Dresden in 1550), Dresden already had 5,900 residents in 1489.

As the residence of the Albertine line of the Wettins (1485–1918) and the capital of the Electorate of Saxony (from 1547), Dresden developed into a world-famous cultural center. After 1539 the Reformation prevailed in Dresden, which remained a stronghold of the strictly Lutheran creed even when the Albertine princely house became Catholic again in 1697 (for the Polish royal crown). Developed into a Renaissance residence under Moritz von Sachsen (1541–53), the economy and culture of the city were developed in particular by Elector August (1553–86) promoted; he created the Kunstkammer (1560) and a book and map collection, the predecessor of the Saxon State Library (1556). As the second oldest musical institution in Dresden after the Dresden Kreuzchor, which was created in the first half of the 13th century, the Hofkapelle was founded in 1548, the forerunner of the Staatskapelle Dresden. The court also sponsored the musical theater, which was shaped by Italian opera (first opera house in 1666).

Under August II the Strong (1694–1733), and August III. (1733–63) Dresden was a place of brisk building activity and a place of splendid court life (so-called Augustan age); at that time the art collections were expanded (porcelain collection 1720, green vault 1721, picture gallery 1722, antique collection 1723, copper engraving cabinet 1728). Altendresden, which fell victim to a fire in 1685, was rebuilt as Neustadt (“New Royal City”, name since 1732). During the Seven Years’ War (1756–63), the Prussian troops that occupied Dresden from 1756–59 caused great damage through arson; In 1760, King Friedrich II of Prussia was looking for a place to recapture the lost fortress in vain under severe destruction.

In the Peace of Dresden (December 25, 1745), which ended the 2nd Silesian War, Prussia was confirmed the possession of Silesia, Saxony had to pay high war compensation and waived Silesian claims. – On the 26./27. 8. In 1813, a few weeks before the Battle of Leipzig, the French under Napoleon I defeated the main army of the allies near Dresden (last victory on German soil).

In the 17th century Bohemian religious refugees and in the 19th century Polish emigrants found refuge in Dresden. In the course of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848/49, there was also political unrest in Dresden; In 1849 the Dresden May Uprising formed the starting point of the imperial constitution campaign. In the second half of the 19th century (opening of the first German long-distance railway between Leipzig and Dresden in 1839), Dresden developed into a transport hub and industrial center; the industrial enterprises spread mostly in the suburbs. In the further course of the 19th century, Dresden, a royal residence since 1806, grew rapidly. The incorporation of suburbs and the construction of typical working-class quarters associated with industrialization caused the population to rise rapidly (1699: 21,000, 1727: 46,000 and 1755: 63,000) (1834: 74,000, 1852: 100,000 [big city], 1890: 277,000). After the incorporation of 65 villages (1892) Dresden (1900) had 396,000 residents; In 1933, after the incorporation of a further 23 towns (1921), it had the highest population of 649,300.

Dresden has been able to maintain its reputation as a cultural center since the 18th century. Excellent teachers were appointed to the art academy, which was founded in 1764. Visual artists (P. O. RungeC. D. Friedrich), poets and writers (H. von KleistE. T. A. HoffmannL. TieckA. H. Müller, the Schlegel brothers) came together here in the spirit of Romanticism, namely in the circle of the doctor and philosopher CG Carus. Experienced opera in the 19th century (C. M. von WeberR. Wagner), Concert and theater a cultivation that was continued in the first decades of the 20th century. Dresden’s reputation as a cultural center was also promoted by the circles around the »Kunstwart« (1887) and the »Dürerbund« (1902), the painter secession »Die Brücke« founded in 1905, the Hellerau reform efforts and the dance art of Mary Wigman and Gret Palucca.

On 13./14. 2. In 1945, Dresden, which was overcrowded with an additional 200,000 Silesian refugees (according to recent research; previous figures of up to 700,000 have now been considered too high) as well as many forced laborers and soldiers, was heavily destroyed by American and British bomber units (»Operation Donnerschlag «). 772 British bombers dropped 1,477.7 t of mines and high-explosive bombs and 1,181.8 t of incendiary bombs in two night raids. The American bomber associations (311 “Flying Fortresses”) dropped 3,767.1 t of mines and high-explosive bombs and 643.1 t of incendiary bombs in the following six day-to-day attacks. The area of ​​total destruction was 12 km 2, together with the area of ​​severe damage 15 km 2. Information on the number of victims varies greatly. The official estimates for 1945 initially assumed 25,000 fatalities (final report in mid-March) and later (at the end of March) Nazi propaganda indicated 250,000 deaths for ideological reasons. Due to a suspected number of unrecovered victims, it became customary to state the minimum number of 35,000 victims, which numerous publications took over by 2005. At the end of March 2005, a commission of historians set up by the city of Dresden confirmed the number of around 25,000 deaths as the most reliable number of victims. On May 8, 1945, Dresden was captured by Soviet troops.

Dresden was 1918–45, 1946–52 and has been the state capital of Saxony since 1990; 1952–90 it was the capital of the GDR district of the same name. In 1950 10 more places were incorporated, including Hellerau, Klotzsche, Niedersedlitz and Zschachwitz.

The peaceful candle demonstration by over 7,000 people on February 13, 1982 in front of the ruins of the Frauenkirche in Dresden was the first non-state mass rally in the GDR. In October 1989 Dresden was, after initially civil war-like conditions on 4th / 5th. 10., one of the great arenas of the peaceful revolution in the GDR (German history).

Dresden – the destruction in the air war in 1945

Dresden as a warning: the destruction in the air war in 1945

Gerhart Hauptmann’s complaint about the destruction of a large cultural site *

Anyone who has forgotten how to cry will learn it again when Dresden went down. This cheerful morning star of youth has shone the world so far. I know that there are enough good spirits in England and America who were no stranger to the divine light of the Sistine Madonna and who weep deeply struck by the extinction of this star.

And I personally experienced the fall of Dresden under the Sodom and Gomorrah hells of the English and American planes. When I insert the word “experienced” it is still a miracle to me. I do not take myself seriously enough to believe that fate has expressly reserved this horror for me at this point in what is almost the most dear part of my world.

I stand at the exit gate of life and envy all my dead comrades who were spared this experience.

I cry. Don’t bother with the word “weep”: the greatest heroes of antiquity, including Pericles and others, were not ashamed of it.

From Dresden, from his deliciously even artistry in music and words, wonderful rivers flowed through the world, and England and America also drunk thirstily from it.

Did you forget that?

I am almost eighty-three years old and stand before God with a legacy that is unfortunately powerless and only comes from the heart: it is the request that God love, purify and clarify people more for their salvation than before.

*) The text was written in March 1945 and was first published on April 6, 1946. – G. Hauptmann, first married to a woman from Dresden from 1885–1904, stayed in Dresden for the last time from February 5 to March 21, 1945; he experienced the bombing and destruction of the city in the basement of a sanatorium in Oberloschwitz, where his second wife was being treated.

Hauptmann: Dresden, in: the same: Complete works, edited by H.-E. Hass, Volume 11: Post-traced works, fragments (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1996), page 1205 f.

Dresden, Germany History

Iceland Landmarks

Iceland Landmarks

Thingvellir National Park

Breathtaking nature and a lot of history

The heart of the Icelandic nation has been beating here for over a millennium

Thingvellir National Park, founded in 1928 and now 237 km² in size, is located on the north bank of the 80 km² lake Þingvallavatn in the area of ​​the two municipalities Bláskógabyggð and Grímsnes og Grafningur in the capital area (“Höfuðborgarsvæðið”) around Reykjavík in southwest Iceland.

Translated into German, the Icelandic name is roughly “level of the people’s assembly”, which already points to the historical significance of the place. In fact, not far from the Almannagjá Gorge, after the conquest of the island by mainly Norwegian Vikings in the middle of the 10th century, the chiefs met and gathered three times a year to give advice. The intersection of the strategically most important equestrian trails at the time was easily accessible from all regions populated at the time. As “Alþing” this regular and worldwide one of the oldest parliamentary meetings existed until 1798 and the dissolution by the Danish occupiers.

A short dive in the cold clear water between America and Eurasia

The Thingvellir area owes its status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2004 to the two historically traditional and nationally significant dates of the acceptance of Christianity in Iceland in 1000 and the proclamation of the Republic in June 1944. In the summer of 1994, numerous ceremonies for the 50th anniversary took place here the founding of the state. Weathered and overgrown walls on the edge of the former meeting place are architectural witnesses of the medieval gatherings. A trip to the national park is also worthwhile for holidaymakers interested in geology and geological history, because it is located in the western rift zone and is surrounded by the four active volcanic systems Hengill and Hrómundartindur as well as Hrafnabjörg and Prestahnúkur.

Marvel at big fish and golden destinations not far from Reykjavík

The extensive Þingvallavatn lake is also known to be extremely rich in fish, the dominant species of trout and char in the water attract numerous anglers. A visit to the national park and its scenic surroundings can be easily combined with a round trip on the approximately 300 kilometer long holiday road “Gullni hringurinn” (Golden Tour) to many attractions in the south and southwest of Iceland.

Vatnajokull National Park

Iceland is famous for its breathtaking landscapes. The Scandinavian country has long been more than an insider tip, especially for nature lovers and adventure vacationers. A real must for visitors to Iceland is Vatnajökull National Park. After all, some of Iceland’s greatest natural wonders can be admired here in one of the largest national parks in Europe. In total, the park covers an area of ​​almost 14,000 square kilometers. So you should plan a lot of time when visiting the Vatnajökull National Park, which was founded in June 2008 and is characterized by an impressive variety of landscapes.

Fascinating sights: waterfalls, volcanoes, glaciers

In the north is Dettifoss, one of the largest and most spectacular waterfalls in Europe. Another popular tourist magnet within the Vatnajökull National Park is the Askja central volcano, which is the center of the approximately 200-kilometer-long volcanic system of the same name. In the south, the Vatnajökull glacier, which gave the national park its name, casts its spell over numerous locals and tourists from all over the world every day. Near the glacier, which covers more than 8,000 square kilometers, is the Morsárfoss, the highest waterfall in the country, which is also a popular attraction. If you want to experience an impressive flora and fauna, you should look around in the east of the national park.

Geosea geothermal bath

With a breathtaking view of the ocean, the Geosea geothermal bath in Húsavik on the north coast of Iceland offers a very special and unforgettable bathing experience. With a little luck, visitors to this seaside resort even have the fantastic opportunity to watch whales in the sea. The geothermal bath is about 90 km away from the city of Akureyri, the second largest city in Iceland. According to the Icelandic Tourist Office, adults pay 4300 kroner to enter, which is the equivalent of around € 32. For children under 16 years of age, the entrance fee is 1600 crowns. The entire geothermal system is heated by natural geothermal energy. Visitors have the choice between 3 pools, modern and stylish bathing in the warm thermal water is a treat for body, mind and soul.

Relaxation with a fantastic view of the Skyrim mountain ranges

So if you are traveling in the north-east of Iceland, Geosea should not be missed. The Geosea Bath is uniquely located on a cliff and the pleasantly warm water temperature is around 38 ° C. With a view of the bay of Skj lfanda and with mountains and pleasant music in the background, the relaxation experience for adults and children is absolutely fantastic. The well-equipped changing rooms of the thermal bath are equipped with spacious lockers as well as shampoo, conditioner and shower gel. The associated building in a fantastic design is well camouflaged from the outside in the grass and was built directly into the slope. With a direct view of wildlife, sea and mountains, a visit to the Geosea geothermal bath offers a unique Icelandic experience.

Husavik offers more activities and sights

As everywhere in Iceland, there is a lot to discover and experience besides swimming. Whale watching is a must have, but also the Diamant Circle, a 250 km tour the city has planned as a sight next to Ásbyrgi Canyon, Lake Mývatn and the Dettifoss waterfall. In the city’s restaurants you have numerous opportunities to enjoy regional cuisine.

Iceland Landmarks

Megève and Courchevel, France

Megève and Courchevel, France

Megève

Megève is a well-known winter sports resort in Savoy. The village with its districts Comblux and Còte 2000 is located at heights of 1027 m and 2485 m in the Mont Blanc region in eastern France. The French aristocrat Maurice de Rothschild discovered the charming mountain village for winter tourism at the beginning of the 20th century and had the first luxury hotel built there. To this day Megève has lost none of its charming fascination and belongs to the small group of “Best of the Alps” holiday resorts, which are visited by holidaymakers from all over the world.

Megève as a holiday destination for connoisseurs

In contrast to the Mont Blanc hotspot Chamonix, Megève has remained largely authentic. The village with around 3400 inhabitants impresses with beautiful hotels that fit well into the alleys of traditional stone houses. Winter sports enthusiasts and summer vacationers like to come to this place, which offers “pleasure holidays”. The ski areas on the local mountains have mostly easy and medium-difficulty slopes, the sports and wellness offer is adapted to a rather quiet clientele. Easy hiking trails for families and beginners, river tours and a “bit of adventure” with canyoning, balloon rides, climbing or paragliding are all part of an active summer holiday in Megève.

The focus of the hoteliers and inn owners is the well-being of all visitors and in the pedestrian zones around the small main square there are inns with star kitchens, elegant bars, boutiques and good party locations where celebrations take place all year round. The so-called “night marathon”, which leads the party people through the local bars and discos, is particularly popular.

Courchevel

Courchevel is one of the best ski resorts in the French Alps. It is located in Savoy in eastern France and is part of the 1400 km² ski area Le 3 Vallettas. International ski races and summer competitions have been held in the winter sports facilities around Courchevel for many years. Holidaymakers from all over the world travel to the snow-sure ski area to enjoy winter sports and après ski.

The municipality of Courchevel is divided into four districts at different altitudes. Le Praz is at around 1300 m, Village at 1550 m and Moriond at 1650 m. Courchevel as the main town is very high at 1850 m and located close to the slopes. The spectacular Altiport Courchevel, which offers spectacular views on the approach and was the setting for the famous Bond films, is even higher.

Courchevel: playground for the super-rich

The ski area around Courchevel has around 150 km of slopes and 17 km of hiking trails. The district of Moriond offers the best conditions for beginners and families with children. The famous off-piste “Saulire Couloirs” is internationally known. In the Courchevel area, vacationers will find beautiful mountain huts, several star restaurants and many high-priced hotels and chalets that are rented by celebrities from all over the world.

Village and Mondiol are jokingly called “oligarchs’ playgrounds”. The stations have adapted to this special clientele with après ski events, expensive boutiques and nightclubs. Leisure activities include helicopter flights, balloon rides or night skiing.

Le Praz is a bit more relaxed. The village shows typical Savoyard architecture with many residential buildings and several family-friendly facilities.

La maison Troisgros

One of the most famous restaurants in France is located in Roanne, a town in the Loire department. “La Maison Troisgros” has been run by the Troisgros family for three generations and has an excellent name beyond the borders of the country. The Gault-Millau has named it the best restaurant in the world. Attached to the restaurant is a five-star hotel that has been run by the family for just as long.

The highest gourmet tradition

The first generation of the Troisgros family settled in Roanne as early as 1930 and bought a hotel-restaurant opposite the train station. Jean-Baptiste and Marie Troisgros were purely self-taught, but their local, simple and “honest” cuisine soon found a lot of followers and made them known in the area. The wines from the area, Burgundy, completed the culinary offer. The two sons, Jean et Pierre, grew up in the tradition of this kitchen and both trained with all the great chefs of the time. At the same time, the family received guests in their hotel, which they also gave a familiar character.

The next generation

In 1957, the two brothers took over their parents’ restaurant and the “Hotel Moderne” became “Les Frères Troisgros”. Jean and Pierre kept the simple basics of their parents’ kitchen, enriching it with the finesse of the great French cuisine they had learned in their training. The Michelin Guide gradually recognized their stars, up to the third in 1968, which they kept permanently. In 1980 the restaurant was enlarged by the neighboring building.

La Maison Troisgros today

After the death of his brother Jean in 1983, Pierre Troisgros offered his son Michel, born in 1958, the successor in the tradition of the family restaurant. He is now the only owner and person in charge of the restaurant and the hotel, both of which he runs together with his wife Marie-Pierre. “Les Frères Troisgros” is still one of the outstanding examples of French cuisine.

Courchevel, France

Turkey Education and Culture

Turkey Education and Culture

The modern schooling system started by Mustafa Kemal and continued by his successors, is based on the European model. The arts represent themes of the Turkish tradition while showing Western influence. Radio and television have also reached rural areas, posing a threat to indigenous culture.

Education

At the time of the establishment of the republic, more than 90% of the population was illiterate; the new government introduced important educational reforms and the first Constitution established that elementary education was compulsory for all Turks and free in state schools. In 2005 the literacy rate was 87.6% of adults. Education is compulsory between the ages of 9 and 14.

In the year 2000, according to educationvv, 8,014,733 students were enrolled in 49,599 primary schools. The enrollment rate in secondary education was 79% and 28% in higher education.
Access to Turkish universities is extremely difficult; The main institutions include the University of Istanbul (1453), the Aegean University (1955) in Izmir, the University of Ankara (1946), and the Technical University of the Near East (1956), also in Ankara.

Cultural tradition

The Turkish poet Nazim Hikmet evolved from traditional poetry to new forms, with greater freedom in images and rhythmic devices.

The transition from Islamic cultural traditions during the Ottoman Empire (see Islamic Art and Architecture), towards a more western trend, has been gradually gaining relevance in the country. Today’s Turkish painters strive to find their own art form, free from Western influences. The sculpture is less developed and the public monuments are, in essence, heroic representations of Mustafa Kemal and warlike commemorations of the Turkish War of Independence.

Popular music is the source of inspiration for important symphonic works (see Music of Islamic countries).
The most recent Turkish poetry survives thanks to the epic poetry of the Manas, poems that have been passed from generation to generation through the years. The early mystical poetry written by Yunus Emre and other authors in the 14th century gave way to a poetic heritage called ‘couch poetry’; the most popular was that recited by minstrels, a tradition that has continued to this day. Most critics point to Kemal Tahit as the most important modern novelist. Other prominent authors are Yasar Kemal and the poet Nazim Hikmet.

Cultural institutions

In this intricate maze of vaulted pavilions, which began construction in 1459 and became a museum in 1924, collections of objects that belonged to Ottoman sultans are gathered.
Turkey has opera houses in Istanbul and Ankara, with an Academy of Fine Arts in Istanbul, three conservatories and a national folk music ensemble, in addition to several cultural institutions. Christian churches have been turned into mosques and those built by the famous architect Mimar Sinan are located in Istanbul, Edirne, Bursa and other cities.

The former palace of the Sultan, is today the Topkapi Museum, which brings together collections of objects that belonged to Ottoman sultans. The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, located in Ankara, has among other valuable objects, with Hittite and Phrygian relics. Among the main libraries are the National Library in Ankara and the Beyazit State Library in Istanbul.

Media

Turkey has 588 daily newspapers, most of which are of low circulation; those with the largest circulation are the Cumhuriyet, the Sabah, the Hürriyet, the Milliyet and the Türkiye, all of them published in Istanbul. The country also has numerous weekly and monthly publications (688 in 2000). The government controls four national radio broadcasts and five television channels, although there are also several private radio and television networks. There are about 37 million radio sets and 30 million television receivers. The country has 263 telephones and 52 computer equipment in use for every thousand residents.

Main cities

Located on the Bosphorus Strait, Istanbul is the main port and largest city in Turkey. The walls seen here are remnants of the original city built in 324 AD by Emperor Constantine I.
According to the 2007 census, the population of the main cities was 11,174,257 residents in Istanbul, 3,428,000 residents in the capital Ankara, 2,409,000 in Izmir or Izmir, 395,388 in Adana and, finally, 459,877 in Bursa. Other major Turkish cities are: Kars, Samsun, Mersin, Van, Edirne (former Adrianápolis), Elâzığ, Kırıkkale, Iskenderun, Isparta, Konya, Malatya, Diyarbakır, Gaziantep, Maras, Adapazarı, Kayseri, Erzurum, Antioch and Antalya.

Official and spoken languages

The official language is the Turkish language. Furthermore, between 10 and 15% of the population speak their mother tongue, generally Kurdish or Arabic.

Religion

The Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul was built in 1550. The architect Sinan based his design on Byzantine churches, especially Hagia Sophia. The large central dome, on a square structure, opens onto small vaulted spaces with half domes as buttresses. The four pointed minarets, with balconies, are characteristic of the architectural style of late Islamic mosques.
Islam ceased to be the official religion in 1928. However, 99% of the population is Muslim, mainly Sunni, while the Shiites are in the southeast. Christians make up less than 0.1% of the total population. The Jewish community has about 20,000 members.

Turkey Education and Culture

Belarus Geography and Society

Belarus Geography and Society

Belarus is an essentially flat country. Its highest point is Mount Dzyarzhynskaya, 356 m high. We can distinguish three different regions, one to the north, where the lakes of glacial origin are found, another in the center, where there is a wide plateau covered with forests, and another to the south, swampy and practically uninhabited; they are the swamps of Pripyat.

The plateau is made up of a series of parallel bands oriented from west-southwest to east-northwest.

Due to its low altitude, the territory is very poorly drained, so shallow lakes and swamps are very abundant. There are more than 4,000 lakes, but all of them small. The rivers are long, slow and mighty, many of them allow navigation. There are three main rivers that drain Belarus, the Dnieper, the Pripyat and the Niemen.

Relief

It is characterized by being a low plain, with high and undulating lands that rarely exceed 300 m in height.

Hydrography

The Dnieper River runs through the east of the country. It is one of the main rivers in eastern Europe. It has a length of 2,290 km between its source in the Valdai plateau and its mouth in the Black Sea. In Belarus, 690 km of its route pass.

The Prípiat River runs through the south of the country. It is 710 km long, of which 495 km correspond to Belarus. It is born in Ukraine and empties into the Dnieper river near Chernobyl (Ukraine). There is a channel that connects this river as the Bug River, a tributary of the Vistula, passing through the cities of Pinsk and Brest.

The Niemen River is located in the northwest of the country. It is 937 km long, of which 459 km correspond to Belarus. It is born near Slomin, in Godno, from the union of several tributaries, and becomes navigable. It empties into the Baltic Sea, making the border between Lithuania and Kaliningrad.

Other important rivers are the Daugava, the Sozh, the Berezina, the Neris, the Pitichi, the Chara and the Sviloch.

Lakes

The main lakes are: the Narach, of 79.6 km², the Osveya, of 52.8 km² and the Chervono, of 40.3 km², in addition to many other smaller ones.

Climate

The dominant climate is the humid continental climate, which is an extension of the maritime climate of the west coast typical of Western Europe but drier and with more contrasting temperatures, colder in winter and warmer in summer. The thermal oscillation is around 30 ºC. The centers of action that affect the region are the polar front, which brings maritime polar air masses, and which arrive sparingly and in summer, the Siberian anticyclone, which dominates in winter together with other occasional local anticyclones, and the anticyclone of the Azores that occasionally arrives in summer. Summers are hot and rainy, but short, winters are long, cold and dry, with precipitations in the form of snow, especially in autumn. and winter.

Average temperatures range from -6ºC in January to 20ºC in July. The precipitations oscillate between the 700 mm of the west and the 550 mm of the east.

In Belarus there is a clear contrast between the western and eastern regions of the country. The west receives the moderating action of the sea to a greater extent, so the temperatures are less extreme and the rainfall more abundant.

Vegetation

Belarus is a heavily forested country. One third of the country is covered in unpopulated forests. Conifers are the dominant species to the north, while birches and alders appear in the south. In the east the forest gives way to a wooded steppe. Being a very flat country, it is very poorly drained, so swamps and peatlands are frequent, such as the one around the Prípiat River.

Two ecoregions are distinguished: the mixed sarmatic forest, to the north, and the mixed forest of central Europe in the south.

Environmental issues

Belarus has large areas heavily contaminated by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. [1] in 1986

Fauna

Forests occupy 30% of the surface: pine, fir and birch predominate in the north and oak, elm and white beech are predominant in the south.

Flora

The fauna is varied in the country including moose, reindeer, wild boar, wolves, foxes, squirrels, martens, wild hares, beavers, otters, minks, badgers, the European bison that is in serious danger of extinction.

Language

According to andyeducation, the official languages are Belarusian and Russian.

Social development

Demography

Russians are the largest minority, with 13.5% of the population. Other minorities are: Ukrainians, Jews, Poles and Lithuanians. Life expectancy at birth is 76.4 years for women and 64.6 years for men. Infant mortality and other health-related statistics have been generally favorable, although radioactive fallout from the nuclear accident in the Ukrainian city of Chernobyl in 1986 has highlighted Belarus’s good health statistics.

Transport

Belarus has an extensive highway and rail system, and through its navigable rivers and the Dnieper-Bug canal system, it has access to the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea.

Belarus Society

Bulgaria History

Bulgaria History

The area of ​​today’s Bulgaria was part of the historical Thrace landscape in ancient times. Of the Thracian tribes known from Greek written sources, the Triballians settled in western Bulgaria and eastern Serbia, the Serds in the area around Sofia, the Odryses around Stara Sagora and the Bessen in the eastern Rhodope Mountains. Since the 7th century BC The Thracians were culturally influenced and partially Hellenized by the Greek trading ports on the Black Sea and Aegean coasts. Around 450 BC The empire of the Odryses was formed in the territory of Bulgaria and was able to assert itself against the Greeks and Macedonians; neither Philip II of Macedonia, who owned the region in 342 BC. Chr. Conquered, even later his son Alexander the Great or the Diadoche Lysimachus in the early 3rd century BC BC brought the area under their full control. New immigrants were around 300 BC. Celtic ethnic groups with the center Tylos (on the Tundscha); they followed in the 2nd century BC. The Germanic Bastarnen and finally the Romans, the 29-28 BC. BC parts of Thrace conquered. In 45/46 AD the entire Thracian heartland finally came under Roman rule. The areas southeast of the line Sofia-Plovdiv were now on the province Thracia, the area north and west of this line with the province of Moesia (later divided several times, Moesia). Trajan secured the conquest through a Limes along the Danube and through the Dobrudscha (Trajan’s Wall). The population, now of very different origins, was partly Romanised. After the division of the Roman Empire in 395, the Thracian area came under the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. After devastation by the Goths and Huns, first forays by Proto-Bulgarian horsemen (since 491, several times in the first half of the 6th century) and the temporary supremacy of the Avars Slavs immigrated from the end of the 5th century and assimilated the local Thracian tribes. This ended the continuity of antiquity. After 675, the area came under the rule of the Turkic proto- Bulgarians, who at the end of the 6th century had been merged by Khan Kuvrat in the steppe zone around the Sea of ​​Azov to form a tribal group “Greater Bulgaria”. After his death, part of it penetrated to the mouth of the Danube.

Bulgaria under Turkish rule (1396–1878)

According to educationvv, the conquered Bulgaria was subordinated to the Beglerbeg of Rumelia with the seat (until 1836) in Sofia and divided into five sanjaks (Widin, Nikopol, Silistra, Macedonia, Thrace). The population losses were to be compensated for by the settlement of Anatolian colonists and the semi-nomadic Jürüken (cattle breeders from Asia Minor). The local nobility was socially and economically leveled and replaced by Turkish spahis (timar system); the entire population was heavily taxed and encouraged to change beliefs (Pomaken), partly also violently Islamized. Since the higher clergy consisted almost exclusively of Phanariots and Greek had become the language of the liturgy, the clergy of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was graced; the lower clergy and the monasteries developed into cells of national resistance. After the suppression of an uprising in northern Bulgaria (with the participation of Mirceas the Elder) in 1404, the Battle of Varna In 1444 and the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453) there was no longer any hope of a quick end to Turkish rule. With the exception of the economic contacts running through Ragusa, external relations were almost completely broken down. The endeavors of the Turkish Spahi warriors to transfer their service loans to large hereditary estates worsened the material situation of the Bulgarian peasants. The decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unsuccessful wars against the Habsburgs sparked local uprisings in Tarnowo (1598 and 1686), Gabrovo (1686), and Tschiprowez (1688 and 1737/38), which – just like the actions of the Heiducken  - were bloodily knocked down. At the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries, many Bulgarians therefore sought refuge in the neighboring Danube principalities and in the Danube Monarchy.

The economic upswing that began in the 18th century with strong population growth favored the national revival, which was boosted by the »Slavic-Bulgarian history« of the Athos monk Paissi of Chilendar, which ended in 1762, and the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74; In 1835 the first secular Bulgarian school was opened in Gabrovo. The freedom struggle of the Serbs (1804-17) and Greeks (1821-29), supported by Russia, as well as the inner-Ottoman reforms strengthened the national movement, which also supported the rebellious peasants (1835, 1841, 1850) in the struggle for a national Bulgarian church. Emigrants from Wallachia and Russia prepared the national uprising. In 1861 G. Rakowski organized the First Bulgarian Legion in Belgrade and in 1862 tried to organize the Heiducken to fight the Turks. In Bucharest, W. Levski and L. Karawelow founded a Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee based on the model of the Russian Narodniki and, in 1868, a Bulgarian Society. The establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate in Constantinople (1870), despite many setbacks, further increased the desire for national freedom and the unification of the Bulgarian territories. The April uprising of 1876, at which a. C. Botew participated, could be bloodily suppressed by the Turks (»Bulgarian horror«), but the Russo-Turkish War in 1877/78 ended the Turkish rule (including participation of Bulgarian irregulars in the battle of Pleven and on the Shipka Pass).

Bulgaria History

Travel to Vienna, Austria

Travel to Vienna, Austria

The city of Vienna is known for their large number of sights and attractions.  Visit watchtutorials.org for Austria travel guide.

This is how you should definitely see the Hofburg. For over seven centuries she was the seat of the Habsburgs. Originally the castle was built in the thirteenth century, which was expanded after the Habsburgs came to power. Today the Hofburg is the seat of the Federal President. The Hofburg also includes the Silver Collection, the Sissi Museum and the Imperial Apartments.

The absolute highlight of Vienna is the Prater with the Ferris wheel. The city’s landmark was created in the years 1896-1897. It was implemented by the English engineer Walter Basset. Thousands of tourists come to the Prater every year to ride the Ferris wheel or to have fun in the Wurstelprater amusement park.

Schönbrunn Palace was completed in 1770. The castle itself has beautiful gardens, the Gloriette, the zoo and the palm house. There was already a palace here in front of Schönbrunn Palace. The previous Katterburg Castle was built in the fourteenth century.

The Spanish Riding School is also worth seeing. It is a unique institution, there is hardly another comparable facility in the world, where you can learn the classical art of riding, which has not been changed over the centuries. If you want to find out more about the Lipizzaner, white horses, you should visit the Lipizzaner Museum in Stallburg.

St. Stephen’s Cathedral is located near the Ferris wheel, which is Vienna’s landmark. The cathedral was built by Rudolf the founder in the Gothic style. The cathedral has been the seat of a bishopric since 1469.

For museum lovers, Vienna will be a real paradise as the city has over a hundred museums to offer. To name a few examples, there would be the Art History Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Museum Quarter, Albertina, the Kunsthaus, etc.

Art and culture are also important to the city. There are a number of theaters and opera houses in Vienna, such as B. the Vienna State Opera, the Volkstheater, the Volksoper etc.

The Capuchin Church is also worth seeing – it was built in Vienna between 1622 and 1632. From 1633 until today, the church has been the final resting place for 138 Habsburgs.

The Karlskirche is the city’s most valuable baroque building. It was built in the eighteenth century. It was commissioned by Emperor Charles VI. Because of a plague epidemic.

Vienna is not only known for its large number of sights. Many well-known universities have their headquarters in Vienna.

There are also some interesting green spaces in the city. There are more than a hundred of them in total.

So you shouldn’t miss the Augarten Park. The Augarten Palais is located in the park. In the center of the park there was a castle called old Favorita. It was destroyed by the Turks in 1683 and rebuilt in the seventeenth century. The palace has been the seat of the Vienna Boys’ Choir since 1948 and has not been open to the public since then.

The Augarten Park was only created in the second half of the seventeenth century. The opening in 1775 was celebrated exuberantly by the people, as was Joseph the Second. Famous composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Johann Strauss have given concerts in the garden house.

The imperial porcelain factory has been housed in the garden house since the eighteenth century. Today you can get to know the history of Augarten porcelain here in the various exhibition rooms. There are other sights to see in the Augarten.

Other parks in Vienna are the Burggarten, the Stadtpark, the Vienna Woods and the Central Cemetery.

Travel to Vienna, Austria

Brussels: Europe’s Capital

Brussels: Europe’s Capital

The capital and residential city of Belgium and several surrounding municipalities form the bilingual Brussels region. Its residents are made up of Flemings and Walloons. As the secret capital of Europe, it is home to several institutions of the European Union. The NATO headquarters are nearby. In Brussels, services and administration play a bigger role than industry. The many monuments of the old trading town attract numerous visitors every year.

According to AbbreviationFinder, Brussels, Flemish Brussel, French Bruxelles, is the capital and residence of Belgium.

Together with 18 surrounding communities, it forms the 162 km² region of the same name.

The city lies on the Senne and is connected to Antwerp by the Brussels Sea Canal and to Charleroi by smaller canals.

The city proper has just under 150,000 residents, but the entire metropolitan area has more than 1 million residents. The majority of the residents of the bilingual city are either Dutch-speaking Flemings or French-speaking Walloons. With two full universities, three sub-universities or faculties and several universities, Brussels is an important center of education. There are also several libraries, museums and theaters in the city.

The Brussels region is also home to a wide range of industries with more than a third of the country’s industrial companies. In addition to companies in the textile, metal, electrical and chemical industries, there are machine and vehicle factories as well as metallurgical, steel and rolling mills. Inner-city traffic has been relieved by a subway since 1976. The trading center, which was already important in the Middle Ages, also has a port and an international airport.

Capital of Europe?

For the city of Brussels, the areas of administration and services are particularly important.

It is not only the seat of government and administrative authorities in the country, but also of numerous authorities and institutions of international rank. The number of all international organizations based in and around Brussels is estimated at almost 900.

No other city in the European Union has such a concentration of European institutions. Brussels is the seat of the permanent General Secretariat of the Benelux countries, the EU Commission and the European Atomic Energy Community EURATOM. Since 1960 in particular, the number of institutions tied to these authorities has increased rapidly. They currently provide jobs for more than 15,000 civil servants and employees. The NATO headquarters are located in the immediate vicinity of Brussels. 75% of all Belgian banks are also concentrated in Brussels.

This development has led to an immensely high demand for office space in the city in recent years and has caused land prices to rise astronomically. The resident population is therefore increasingly settling on the outskirts, so that some inner-city quarters look deserted at night.

History

Brussels (the name “Bruocsella” has been used since the 7th century) was built around a castle of the Counts of Leuven (later Dukes of Brabant), built at the end of the 10th century, on an island in the Zenne. In the 11th century the counts moved their seat to the Koudenberg. The settlement that developed between the two castles was already called a trading post at that time, which benefited from its favorable location at the junction of the Cologne-Bruges trade route over the Zenne. Around 1100 this settlement and other settlement cores around the castles were surrounded by a curtain wall. Since the 12th century, the cloth industry gained steadily growing economic weight. After several revolts by the guild citizens, the guilds were given a say in the city administration in 1421.

With the takeover of rule in Brabant by the Dukes of Burgundy (1430), Brussels, until then one of the seven (later four) main towns of Brabant, grew into the capital of the extensive territory. As early as the 14th century, due to the economic boom (cloth and cloth trade, trade in handicrafts; Brussels was the center of Flemish painting), several suburbs outside the wall were created City were included.

Under the Habsburgs, Brussels, newly fortified in 1530, became the capital of the Netherlands. During the Dutch struggle for freedom, the Duke of Alba had Counts Egmont and Horne executed here on June 5, 1568. In 1576 Brussels joined the Dutch uprising, but was recaptured by Spanish troops in 1585 after a long siege. The Dutch War of Independence severely damaged Brussels’s economy. Because of the blockade of the Scheldt harbors, cloth-making and the cloth trade lost their importance. The conversion to the production of glass and faience goods as well as Brussels lace was slow. In the wars of the French king Louis XIV. against Spain the city was badly hit. In 1695 almost the entire medieval old town burned down after a bombardment. Under the Austrian government (1713–94), Brussels experienced a new upswing, mainly because of the network of roads being developed with Brussels as the center. Trading companies and banks took their seat in the city (1778 opening of the stock exchange).

In the course of the French Revolutionary Wars, Brussels came under French rule in 1795; it was the capital of the Dyle department. Since 1815 it has belonged to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with The Hague’s second capital. In 1830 Brussels started the revolution that led to the formation of the Kingdom of Belgium, of which Brussels became the capital. The economic upswing that began in the middle of the 19th century, mainly through the emergence of industrial companies, was promoted by the Belgian rail network, which was geared towards the capital. In both world wars the city was occupied by German troops. During the Second World War it suffered severe damage from air raids. After 1945, Brussels was one of the points of contention in the Flemish-Walloon language dispute.

At least 32 people were killed on March 22, 2016, and over 300 people were injured, some seriously. The Islamic State claimed responsibility for the terrorist attacks.

Brussels - Europe's Capital

Bosnia and Herzegovina Overview

Bosnia and Herzegovina Overview

Bosnia and Herzegovina, officially Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) [- hεrtsε-], state in Southeast Europe (2018) 3.3 million residents; The capital is Sarajevo.

In the south the country has a 20 km long stretch of coast to the Adriatic Sea.

Military

After the amalgamation of the sub-armies, the total strength of the armed forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina is 10,600 men. In place of compulsory military service, there has been a four-month general service obligation. The army (around 9,200 soldiers) is divided into 3 mechanized infantry brigades, 1 combat support brigade and 4 logistics battalions. The air force and air defense has around 900 men.

In 2006 Bosnia and Herzegovina joined NATO’s “Partnership for Peace”. US military aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina amounts to US $ 4 million (2015).

Education

There is general compulsory schooling between the ages of 6 and 15. The school system is divided into a nine-year primary level, which is followed by a structured system of four-year secondary schools. These lead to the (technical) Abitur and, in addition to grammar schools, include vocational secondary schools with different specialist areas (technical, commercial, medical, educational, artistic). The languages ​​of instruction are in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, depending on the ethnic majority of the students, Bosnian or Croatian, in the Serb Republic of Serbian. This means that the school system is linguistically / ethnically split up, with ethnically integrated teaching only in the Brčko district. According to educationvv, the universities (standard period of study: 4 years) in Sarajevo (founded in 1949) form the basis of higher education, Mostar (founded in 1977), Tuzla (founded in 1976) and Bihać (founded in 1997) as well as around 40 higher education institutions, some of which are comparable to German universities of applied sciences (standard period of study: 2 years).

Media

The media landscape in Bosnia and Herzegovina is diverse, but primarily shaped by the ethnic division of the country. Governments and political parties are very influential.

Press: The most important daily newspapers are »Dnevni Avaz«, »Oslobodjenje« and »Jutarnje Novine« in Sarajevo, »Nezavisne Novine« and the government newspaper of the Serbian Republic »Glas Srpske« in Banja Luka as well as »Dnevni List« and »Večernji List« in Mostar. Also of importance are the independent political weekly newspapers “Slobodna Bosna”, “BH Dani” and “Start” (both in Sarajevo) and “Novi Reporter” (Banja Luka).

News agencies: Federalna Novinska Agencija (FENA, state) and Nezavisna Novinska Agencija (ONASA, private) in Sarajevo and Novinska Agencija Republike Srpske (SRNA, state) in Banja Luka.

Broadcasting: The public broadcasting system of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into three parts: Radio-Televizija Bosne i Hercegovine (BHRT, Sarajevo) broadcasts a radio (»BH Radio 1«) and a television program (»BHT 1«), »Radio- Televizija Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine “, RTV FBiH) two radio and television programs and” Radio Televizija Republike Srpske “(RTRS) one radio and one television program. Private TV channels include “NTV Hayat”, “OBN Televizija”, “Hema TV” (all Sarajevo) and the Serbian “BN TV”. There are also a large number of private radio stations; “Antena Sarajevo” and “RSG Radio” from the RSG Group are among the largest.

Tourism

South of Sarajevo is the formerly most important winter sports center of Yugoslavia (site of the XIV. Olympic Winter Games 1984), there are also some health resorts and spas with mineral and thermal springs, especially in the Bosnian highlands.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has tourist potential primarily due to its mountains with several national parks and old, historically interesting cities (Sarajevo, Mostar [ Mostar Bridge, destroyed in 1993; rebuilt in 2004; UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2005] and Jajce).

As a result of the war damage, the uncertain political framework and the sluggish investment in the tourist infrastructure, tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina did not play a significant role for a long time. Only since the beginning of the 2000s has the number of holidaymakers increased significantly again (2013: 529,000 foreign visitors).

Transportation

The traffic grows big problems from the extremely complicated relief conditions (mountain ranges stretching from northwest to southeast). The routes of the traffic routes are connected with a large number of complex traffic structures. The only significant railway line of 601 km (with viaducts of a total of 8 km and tunnels of almost 40 km in length) runs through the Bosna and Neretva valleys and represents the most important traffic axis in the country; it opens the access to the navy lowlands on the one hand and to the Adriatic Sea (Croatian port of Ploče) on the other hand. The road network (22,900 km) is extensive and the roads are largely poorly developed. Sarajevo Airport is of international importance in air traffic; There are important regional airports in Tuzla, Banja Luka and Mostar.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Overview

Turkey Politics and Law

Turkey Politics and Law

Politics

According to the 1982 constitution, Turkey is a parliamentary republic. It is committed to the separation of powers as well as fundamental rights and obligations. In a referendum in 2017, however, according to the electoral commission, a narrow majority of voters voted for a far-reaching constitutional amendment that transformed the system of parliamentary democracy into a presidential system. Since the 2018 election, the President has been head of state and head of government at the same time and has extensive powers. He is directly elected for a term of five years (re-election possible once). If the parliament decides on new elections in the second legislative period of the president, the incumbent may run for office again, resulting in a term of office of up to 14 years. According to carswers, the office of Prime Minister is no longer applicable. The president, who is allowed to belong to a party, is the commander-in-chief of the military, appoints a number of vice-presidents to be determined by him, the members of the cabinet and high-ranking officials, all of whom he can dismiss at any time. He can issue decrees with the force of law and introduce the draft budget to parliament. The parliament with a five-year legislative period has 600 instead of the previous 550 members (active and passive voting rights from the age of 18) and is elected in the same election as the president. The latter can dissolve it and call new elections without certain conditions, but at the same time makes himself available for election. Control of the executive by parliament is hardly possible any more. but at the same time puts himself up for election. Control of the executive by parliament is hardly possible any more. but at the same time puts himself up for election. Control of the executive by parliament is hardly possible any more.

Administration

Turkey is strongly centralized. There are 81 provinces (İl), 30 of which are metropolitan regions (Büyükşehir Belediyesi), which are divided into districts (İlçe) and further into municipalities (Bucak). Each province has an elected provincial assembly. The prefects (Vali, also: Gouverneur) appointed by the interior minister at the top act as representatives of the central government as well as the respective provinces as local authorities. At the head of the district administration is the District Administrator (Kaymakam), also appointed by the Minister of the Interior. Mayors (Belediye) in the parishes and village chiefs (Muhtar) in the villages are elected by the people.

Administrative division of Turkey

Administrative structure (2018)
Province (capital) 1) Area (in km 2) Population (in 1,000) Residents (per km2)
Adana 13 915 2,220.1 160
Adıyaman 7 033 624.5 89
Afyon 14 314 725.5 51
Ağrı 11 470 539.6 47
Aksaray 7 570 412.1 54
Amasya 5 690 337.5 59
Ankara 24 521 5,503.9 224
Antalya 20 723 2,426.3 117
Ardahan 4 842 98.9 20th
Artvin 7 367 174.0 24
Aydın 7 851 1,097.7 140
Balikesir 14 299 1,226.5 86
Bartın 2,080 198.9 96
Batman 4,659 599.1 129
Bayburt 3 739 82.2 22nd
Bilecik 4 302 223.4 52
Bing oil 8 253 281.2 34
Bitlis 7 021 349.4 50
Bolu 8 320 311.8 37
Burdur 6 840 269.9 39
Bursa 10 422 2,994.5 287
Çanakkale 9 933 540.6 54
Çankırı 7 490 216.3 29
Çorum 12 792 536.5 42
Denizli 11 692 1,027.8 88
Diyarbakır 15 058 1,732.4 115
Düzce 2 567 387.8 151
Edirne 6 074 411.5 68
Elâzığ 8 455 595.6 70
Erzıncan 11 619 236.0 20th
Erzurum 25 323 767.8 30th
Eskişehir 13 842 871.2 63
Gaziantep 6 819 2,028.5 298
Giresun 6 832 453.9 66
Gümüşhane 6 437 162.7 25th
Hakkari 7 179 286.5 40
Hatay (Antakya) 5,828 1,609.8 276
İçel (Mersin) 15 485 1,814.4 117
Iğdır 3,588 197.4 55
Isparta 8 276 441.4 53
Istanbul 5 196 15 067.7 2 900
İzmir 12 012 4,320.5 360
Kahramanmaraş 14 346 1,144.8 80
Karabuk 4 109 248.0 60
Karaman 8 845 251.9 28
Kars 10 127 288.9 28
Kastamonu 13 153 383.4 29
Kayseri 17 043 1,389.6 81
Kilis 1 428 142.5 100
Kırıkkale 4,534 286.6 63
Kırklareli 6 278 360.8 57
Kırşehir 6 352 241.8 38
Kocaeli (İzmit) 3 612 1 906.4 528
Konya 38 873 2 205.6 57
Kutahya 11 977 577.9 48
Malatya 11 776 797.0 68
Manisa 13 096 1,429.6 109
Mardin 8 806 829.2 94
Muğla 12 851 967.5 75
Must 8 059 408.0 51
Nevşehir 5 379 298.3 55
Niğde 7 352 364.7 50
Ordu 5,952 771.9 130
Osmaniye 3 124 534.4 171
Rize 3,922 348.6 89
Sakarya (Adapazari) 4 838 1,010.7 209
Samsun 9 083 1,335.7 147
Şanlıurfa 18 765 2,035.8 108
Siirt 5,473 331.6 61
Sinop 5,792 219.7 38
Şırnak 7 152 524.2 73
Sivas 28 549 646.6 23
Tekirdağ 6 313 1,029.9 163
Tokat 9 958 612.6 61
Trabzon 4,664 807.9 173
Tunceli 7 432 88.2 12th
Usak 5,341 367.5 69
Van 19 299 1,123.8 58
Yalova 847 262.2 310
Yozgat 14 072 424.9 30th
Zonguldak 3 304 599.7 182
1) The names of the province and the capital are identical, unless otherwise stated.

Law

The judiciary is overseen by the Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors. The council consists of 13 members (6 appointed by the President, 7 elected by Parliament).

The structure of the ordinary jurisdiction has been in three stages since 2005. Courts of first instance are peace and district courts for civil and criminal matters as well as special courts such as B. Commercial, consumer, labor and family courts. Military jurisdiction was repealed with the constitutional reform that came into force in 2018. The newly established court of second instance will act as the court of appeal for all ordinary courts of first instance. The third and final instance is the Court of Cassation (Yargitay) in Ankara. The factual jurisdiction of the courts is in principle determined according to the value of the subject of the dispute. In each judicial district consisting of several provinces there is also an administrative and a tax court,

The legal system is characterized by two large reception processes. The first served to underpin the social and structural change from the Ottoman Empire to a western-oriented parliamentary republic whose main characteristics were secularismand the rule of law are. This process was initiated with the first constitution of the Turkish Republic (1924) and the adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the first two books of the Swiss Code of Obligations, the Swiss Debt Enforcement and Bankruptcy Act, the Civil Procedure Code of the Canton of Neuchâtel, the Italian Criminal Code and the German Code of Criminal Procedure in the years 1926 to 1929. A commercial code composed of elements from French, Belgian, Italian and German law came into force in 1926 and a maritime trade code composed largely of German law in 1929 (both merged and revised in the new commercial code of 1956).

The second reception process was caused by Turkey’s rapprochement with the EU. With the establishment of the Customs Union in 1996, Turkey had to revise or enact new laws, particularly in the area of ​​commercial law. But the major codes have also all been revised: the Civil Code (2002), the Code of Civil Procedure (2004), the Code of Criminal Procedure (2005) and the Criminal Code (2005). Most of the Commercial Code and the Code of Obligations were also revised. The death penalty has been abolished since 2006.

Turkey Politics

Information about Greece

Information about Greece

Most trips to Greece go to the southern parts and the beautiful islands where the subtropical Mediterranean climate promises warmth with radiant sun. The wind from the sea makes the heat comfortable in the coastal areas, but if you prefer a little more moderate temperatures, spring and autumn are best for a visit.

Here you will find practical information and facts about Greece

PRACTICAL INFORMATION ABOUT TRAVELING IN GREECE

Weather and best time to travel
Most trips to Greece go to the southern parts and the beautiful islands where the subtropical Mediterranean climate promises warmth with radiant sun. The wind from the sea makes the heat comfortable in the coastal areas, but if you prefer a little more moderate temperatures, spring and autumn are best for a visit. Visit thedresswizard.com for sunny Greece.

Money
In Greece, euros (EUR) are used. The Greek state has for many years fought to get all businesses in the country to pay taxes. This has resulted in stores having a sign at the checkout that says that the customer must demand a receipt for their purchase. However, there are still many shops and restaurants that do not take cards or give receipts. However, there are usually plenty of ATMs in cities and villages, but check what the fee is for cash withdrawals.

However, you are often pleasantly surprised by the cheap prices of both restaurants and hotels that are far below the European average.

Transport
Ferry:
Beer beer in the Greek archipelago is an experience in itself. Southeast of Athens are idyllic archipelagos. From the lively port city of Piraeus there are countless ferry lines with different levels of price, comfort and destinations. It’s almost like taking the bus with lots of departures and lots of islands to choose from. There is an island for every taste, from the almost packed port of Fira on the popular holiday island of Santorini to the small island of Folegandros where the only ticket office staff has plenty of time to enjoy the view of the quiet port. You can buy the tickets on site, but in high season we recommend that you book and buy your tickets well in advance from home. Like everything else in Greece, the ferries can also be delayed, but take the opportunity to enjoy the atmosphere and follow your ferry on the MyShipTracking app.

Bus:
If you want to travel around Greece by bus, you will get acquainted with the bus company KTEL which runs all long-distance routes. KTEL has 62 subsidiaries that handle different cities, areas and islands. In the cities, you should be aware that there may be several different bus terminals, but in smaller towns and villages, the bus terminal is sometimes just a stop at a café that also serves as a ticket office. Always arrive well in advance as you do not always keep to the timetable but the bus can run both before and after the timetable.

Trains:
Trains in Greece are neither modern nor particularly fast, but many routes are known for going through beautiful landscapes. The trains are operated by TrainOSE and most long-distance lines depart from the capital Athens.

Tip
In most countries, tips are part of the salaries of employees in the service industry. Therefore, it is good practice (and sometimes directly necessary) to give tips to, for example, cleaning staff, waiters, guides, drivers, etc. depending on the country you are visiting. Therefore, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with how much is normally given in tips and to whom before you embark on your journey. Find information on tips in Lonely Planet’s guidebooks.

FACTS

CAPITAL: ATHENS

LANGUAGE: GREEK

CLIMATE: TEMPERATE IN THE NORTH AND SUBTROPICAL IN THE SOUTH

CURRENCY: EURO

RELIGION: GREEK ORTHODOX

INFORMATION ABOUT GREECE

Lower your shoulders and take it easy
The Greek islands have absolutely fantastic, white sandy beaches. The water is azure blue, crystal clear and calm. The wind waves gently in the palm crowns which gives a streak of shadow on your towel. The pace is more than calm. It is this mentality that you should take with you on your holiday in Greece. The Greeks are a friendly and welcoming people, who prefer not to stress more than is necessary. So forget the Swedish pace and efficiency at home in the desk drawer and only bring the lowered, relaxed shoulders on holiday.

A fantastic kitchen
Fresh feta cheese, juicy kalamata olives, grilled aubergines and crispy tomatoes. Locally produced olive oil in combat streams over the Greek salad or creamy tzatziki. The aroma of the fantastic Greek cuisine whets your appetite, so take a break from the sun and sit in one of the cozy taverns. Maybe you meet some local families, hear when the street musicians play a classic zorba. Almost all taverns serve delicious souvlaki, meat on skewers in Greek marinade. You also have to try surprisingly cheap gyros; super tasty pita bread stuffed with meat, tzatziki with french fries or vegetables.

The addictive island life
Rhodes, Crete, Kos, Corfu and the Cyclades archipelago do not attract many tourists for no reason. The Greek holiday islands in all parts of the country are truly holiday paradise. The sun is blazing on chalk-white beaches with small boats bobbing on the turquoise blue waves. A darker shade of blue is repeated on roofs, fences and chairs in the cozy taverns as a contrast to all the white in the beautiful coastal towns and villages. The price level out on the islands reflects its popularity and it is more expensive there than on the mainland but not close to Swedish prices.

The cradle of civilization
The capital of Greece is called the cradle of civilization. Athens, however, is neither clean, calm or child-friendly as other cradles are. It is not said that one should in any way avoid Athens. The city is incredibly exciting, hectic and authentic with its colorful shops, noisy markets and hectic road users. Here you get an incredible amount of adventure for the money. And so it is with this that it was precisely here that civilization arose, or at least Western democracy as we know it today. This very relevant part of the city’s history is still very much alive in Athens even today. Most popular is to visit is the city landmark Acropolis. But plan your visit carefully so you do not come here when it is the hottest and most tourists.

Poor economy and tax evasion
In 2009, it became known to the whole world that the Greek economy was completely under the ice. Today, it is on the road to recovery. In the big cities, there are still many homeless people and many refugees also come here. Out on the tourist islands, however, it is something completely different. As a tourist, you see the fight against tax evaders. There is a law that says that all stores must have a sign at the cash registers that informs that you as a customer must request a receipt. However, there are still many stores and restaurants that do not accept credit cards and do not provide receipts.

Information about Greece

Rila Monastery (World Heritage)

Rila Monastery (World Heritage)

The monastery complex dates back to the 10th century. After a major fire in the 19th century, it was rebuilt and advanced to the nucleus of the strengthened national feeling as well as the spiritual center of Bulgarian culture under Ottoman rule. The valuable wall paintings in the Church of the Mother of God are particularly worth seeing

Rila Monastery: Facts

Official title: Rila Monastery
Cultural monument: original monastery from the 10th century near today’s monastery, the appearance of which dates from the 19th century; valuable wall paintings with apostles, martyrs and floral decorations in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, 16,000 book library with 134 manuscripts from the 15th-19th centuries. Century
Continent: Europe
Country: Bulgaria
Location: east of Rila, south of Sofia
Appointment: 1983
Meaning: Legacy of St. Ivan Rilski (876-946) and a symbol of Slavic identity

Rila Monastery: History

10th century Founding of a hermitage by Iwan Rilski (Johannes von Rila)
14th century Destruction of the monastery complex by a landslide
1335 Construction of a 25 m high fortress tower
1343 Church building
1469 Transfer of the bones of Iwan Rilski to the monastery
1816 Start of construction of a three-wing monastery complex
1833 Destruction of the monastery complex by conflagration
1834-37 Reconstruction of the monastery complex with the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary (Sveta Bogorodiza)
1840-48 Wall paintings in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin
1961 national memorial

A bulwark of Orthodox traditions

Located almost at the end of a long, deeply cut valley, the visitor is initially offered a less inviting view of the monastery complex. Almost 20 meters high, smooth stone walls, which appear even higher due to the struts, create the image of a small fortress. Two gates allow entry into this well-fortified monastery complex, which in the course of its history indeed had to defend itself from many attacks – and not infrequently also succumbed to the onslaught.

Today there are busloads of tourists who are hungry for education and interested in culture, but also numerous locals, for whose onslaught the monks have to prepare. And so it is above all in the early morning and late afternoon, when there is silence over the walls and only a few roam through the complex, where you can best experience the tranquil atmosphere of this otherwise secluded place.

Once you have entered the inner courtyard, a completely new world opens up, almost cheerful and playful to call it, compared to the craggy and repellent outer wall. First of all, it is the courtyard facades, forming an irregular square, that draw the eye. In front of the multi-storey residential wings are airy arcades, on the lower floors structured by stone arches of different heights, the top floor is closed off almost everywhere with rows of wooden arches. Bay windows and balconies interrupt the regularity of the rows of arches and thus give each wing its own character. The color scheme of the facades – the alternation of black and white, painted brick arches and many small ornaments and wall paintings – as well as the wide, open stairs complete the varied design.

The Church of the Nativity of the Virgin rises in the center of the monastery courtyard. With its numerous larger and smaller domes, its round shapes and its lively exterior shape, it harmonizes with the detailed shape of the buildings that surround it. The interior of the church, but above all the surrounding open colonnade, is adorned with colorful paintings, the hundreds of Old and New Testament scenes of which eloquently provide information about religious ideas of the time; but they also reveal the high artistic level of Bulgarian painters of the 19th century. After the previous church was destroyed, some of the best artists in the country worked on its reconstruction, which was regarded as a national project in Bulgaria, which was still not liberated according to computerminus.

Above all in the outside area of ​​the church there are numerous very vivid depictions of the torments of hell – a kind of visual ecclesiastical code of morals of the 19th century, in which wild, terrifying animals and fire-breathing mythical creatures next to the “ruler of purgatory” and the terrible tormented creatures exhort sinners to repentance. Many of these depictions overcome the medieval canon of orthodox painting by depicting contemporary people and scenes from everyday life. Rich citizens who were among the patrons of the monastery are also immortalized on the frescoes. The fact that many of the works were signed by the performing artists is unusual for Orthodox art and breaks through the anonymity of medieval art.

Next to the church rises the oldest surviving building in the monastery complex, the so-called Chreljo Tower from the 14th century. However, the history of the Rila Monastery points back much further into the past. It was the monk Ivan Rilski who, in the 10th century, had withdrawn into solitude as a hermit near today’s Rila monastery because of criticism of the mendacious morality of the official church. Soon other fellow believers gathered around him – the basis for a new monastery community was created. The monk, who was canonized soon after his death, enjoyed great veneration in the centuries that followed. The Rila monastery developed into the destination of numerous pilgrims who, due to their large number, had to be housed in several secondary monasteries.

Rila Monastery (World Heritage)

Augsburg, Germany City History

Augsburg, Germany City History

City foundation, antiquity

Augsburg’s name goes back to the Roman Augusta Vindelicorum. The name “Augusta” is explained by the fact that the city was built at the behest of the Roman emperor Augustus in 15 BC. Was founded. The settlement, which initially existed as a military camp, was also given the addition of Vindelicorum, which has to do with the tribe of the Vindeliker, who settled with them in that area. If one takes the already mentioned year 15 BC. as the city’s founding date, Augsburg would be Germany’s second oldest city. In any case, Augsburg was one of the largest Roman settlements north of the Alps after Trier.

In 121 the settlement of Augusta Vindelicorum was given Roman city rights by Emperor Hadrianus. From the end of the 1st century it even served as the capital of the Roman province of Raetia. The Germanic Juthung invaded Italy and Raetia in 260 ; they abducted thousands of Italians, but were crushed by the Roman governor on their march back. In 1992 the Augsburg Altar of Victory was discovered; this is invaluable evidence of this battle. In 271 the Juthung (as well as other tribes) invaded the province and the city again.

From the year 294 – after the division of the Raetia Province – Augsburg functioned as the capital of the Raetia Secunda Province. Since the 5th century there has been an increasing number of Alemanni incursions into this province. It is noteworthy in this regard that the settlement was not destroyed in the process. This fact is certainly related to the fact that at this time various pilgrimages to the grave of Saint Afra of Augsburg took place, which are mentioned, for example, in the Vita Sancti Martini by Venantius Fortunatus.
The martyrdom of Afra fell around the time around 300, when Augsburg had already been the seat of a bishop.

In the Middle Ages

According to intershippingrates, Augsburg gained in importance after Emperor Otto I, with the support of Bishop Ulrich von Augsburg, was able to defeat the Hungarians breaking through to the west near the city in the battle on the Lechfeld. In 1156 Augsburg was granted city rights again (this time by Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa) and in 1251 the right to tax citizens and to use a seal. 1276 was an even more important year for the city: The then King Rudolf von Habsburg granted Augsburg imperial immediacy, which meant nothing less than that the city was now allowed to have the status of a free imperial city.

As a result of this extended independence, however, there were violent conflicts with the bishopric, which was the secular domain of the prince-bishop. After the main episcopal residence was relocated to Dillingen (that is, to the Danube), a power vacuum was released, for which various patrician families were fighting. In 1368 there was an uprising of the urban craftsmen in this context. The result was the establishment of a guild constitution. After the guild constitution was introduced in Augsburg, which, by the way, was supposed to join the Swabian League of Cities in 1379, the influence of the guilds grew more and more. Until 1547 they were even involved in the city government.

At this point, reference should be made to the dictator Ulrich Schwarz, whose rule represented the climax of the guilds’ participation in government. He became mayor in 1469 and initially managed to give the guilds, which had not been given the opportunity to have a say, more influence in the city government. Augsburg’s debts could also be drastically minimized. But when the city patriciate got in his way, he made use of crude means: He had the patrician brothers Vittel executed and thereupon himself was given the death penalty (1478).

Augsburg, Germany City History

In the early modern times

The early modern period marks Augsburg’s most important historical phase. It was a time of political and religious decision-making and an economic rise of imposing strength.

After the rule of the guild was finally ended in 1547, Augsburg began its impressive development into one of the most influential trading and economic centers in the world. This was largely due to the wealth and influence of the famous Fuggers, the Augsburg merchant family who were able to steer the fate of Europe with their money and connections.

Decisions of unbelievable consequences were made in Augsburg in the following decades: At the Reichstag in Speyer (1529), the city belonged to the representatives of the evangelical minority. However, she did not take part in the famous protest, but demanded the unhindered expansion of the Lutheran denomination (= Confessio Augustana). This was formulated by Philipp Melanchthon at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530. That Confessio was nothing less than the creed and founding document of the Lutheran Church.

Another important event was the so-called Augsburg Synod of Martyrs in 1527: It was an international gathering of delegates from the Anabaptist faith. Its name hinted at the tragic fact that most of those who took part in the synod later died as martyrs.

The next important political decision was ordered by Emperor Charles V in 1548: the so-called Augsburger Interim was an imperial law that was intended to regulate the ecclesiastical and religious situation in the empire for a transitional period until a general council would finally determine the situation. The interim had to be withdrawn again in 1552. Before that, it had led to fierce opposition on both sides of the denominational spectrum.

The undisputed most important event in the history of the city so far was the establishment of the Augsburg Religious Peace, named after it, which was signed in 1555 at the Reichstag in Augsburg. Ferdinand I concluded this peace with the imperial estates – with the power of attorney from his brother Emperor Charles V. The most important provisions of the text of the treaty included: legal acceptance of Lutheran Protestants, princes’ right to choose their own religion, princes’ right of conversion (Ius reformandi), subjects’ right to emigrate (Ius emigrandi) and the establishment of the ecclesiastical property for the year 1552. The Augsburg resident Religious peace was an important stage victory for the princes over the central imperial power and the idea of ​​a universal Christian empire.

Augsburg suffered the conquest by the Swedes under Gustav II Adolf (1632) during the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648). The statue of Stoinerner Mo and the Schwedenstiege still remind of this dramatic event for the city.

Historical significance of Augsburg

Augsburg’s historical significance must be emphasized as an absolute specialty. Especially in the early modern period, political and religious decisions were made on a large scale in the city on the Lech. The city belonged to the representatives of the Protestant minority at the Reichstag in Speyer (1529). However, she did not take part in the famous protest, but demanded the unhindered expansion of the Lutheran denomination, the Confessio Augustana. This was formulated by Philipp Melanchthon at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530. That Confessio was nothing less than the creed and founding document of the Lutheran Church.

Another important event was the so-called Augsburg Synod of Martyrs in 1527: It was an international gathering of delegates from the Anabaptist faith. Its name hinted at the tragic fact that most of those attending the synod later died as martyrs. The next important political decision was ordered by Emperor Charles V in 1548: the so-called Augsburger Interim was an imperial law that was intended to regulate the ecclesiastical and religious situation in the empire for a transitional period until a general council would finally determine the situation. The interim had to be withdrawn again in 1552. Before that, it had led to fierce opposition on both sides of the denominational spectrum.

The undisputed most important event in the history of the city so far was the establishment of the Augsburg Religious Peace, named after it, which was signed in 1555 at the Reichstag in Augsburg. Ferdinand I concluded this peace with the imperial estates – with the power of attorney from his brother Emperor Charles V. The most important provisions of the text of the treaty included: legal acceptance of Lutheran Protestants, the princes’ right to choose their own religion, the princes’ right of conversion (“Ius reformandi”), the subjects’ right to emigrate (“Ius emigrandi”) and the establishment of the ecclesiastical property for the year 1552. The Augsburg Religious Peace was an important stage victory for the princes over the central imperial power and the idea of ​​a universal Christian empire.

Aschaffenburg, Germany History

Aschaffenburg, Germany History

Aschaffenburg: city history

In the records of the geographer of Ravenna (approx. 450 – 500) there is a mention of a settlement called Ascapha in the Alemannic Nordgau. Today’s Aschaffenburg. Aschaffenburg also formed the eastern center of the Electorate of Mainz for a large part of its history. Before that, the Romans ruled the area as the border region of their empire. The so-called ” wet Limes ” as the border of the Roman Empire at the Mainknie near Aschaffenburg is evidence of this era. The Romans were taken over by the Alemanni, the latter by the Franksreplaced as ruler. The Franks established the Franconian Empire here from the 8th century.

From 982 to 1814 Aschaffenburg was affiliated to the Electorate of Mainz, with its bishops as the highest authority. After Mainz, some bishops also took Aschaffenburg temporarily as their second royal seat. In 1144 the settlement developed into a market and was granted the privilege to mint 17 years later. From here began the most prosperous period in the city’s history, which lasted until the 16th century, when the city lost its coinage and other privileges as it took part in the Peasants’ War. The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) finally put an end to prosperity.

When the ecclesiastical Electorate of Mainz was dissolved in 1803, Aschaffenburg became the seat of the former Archbishop of Mainz and Elector Carl Theodor von Dalberg, who initiated the establishment of a university in Aschaffenburg in 1808, shortly before the city belonged to Austria for two years (1814-1816) and was then incorporated together with the Lower Maing area in Bavaria. Bavaria tried to find its new territories. In the German-German war of 1866, fighting between Prussia and Bavaria took place in the Aschaffenburg area.

At the end of the 19th century industrial companies began to settle in the city on a large scale. During the Second World War, the city was therefore also the target of several air raids by the Allied forces against Germany. After the war, the reconstruction began and at the same time the development as an industrial location continued.

Aschaffenburg: arrival and traffic

General

The most important traffic rules in Germany, which of course also apply in Aschaffenburg, can be found on thereligionfaqs.

Airport

The nearest airport to Aschaffenburg is the international airport in Frankfurt / Main, about 75 kilometers away.

Buses

The Aschaffenburger Verkehrsbetriebe has a modern fleet of buses that serve the city and the surrounding area with 17 lines.

Taxi

There are numerous taxis in the city. There are almost always waiting taxis to be found at the stations at the main train station and at Freihofplatz.

Boat

From the Aschaffenburg marina you can take harbor tours, lock trips and river loop trips.
Address: Ruhlandstraße 5

Bicycle

Aschaffenburg is not a downright bicycle city. But the city administration has tried to expand the paths in recent years. Today the cycle path network, including bus lanes (also allowed for bicycles), is 46 kilometers.

Sightseeing flights

Airfields for small planes and glider pilots are located in Obernau or in Großostheim.

Churches

The Collegiate Church
(St. Peter and Paul)

It is the oldest building in the city. It was built in the 10th century at the behest of Otto von Schwaben. The nave, as the oldest preserved section, dates from the 12th century and has pillar arcades that lead the view towards the high altar. The chancel is equipped with a canopy from 1771. The most important works of art are the Romanesque crucifix from the early 12th century, as well as the painting of the nave and the renaissance pulpit by Hans Junker from 1602. The “Resurrection of Christ” can be seen here by Lucas Cranach and the showpiece “The Lamentation of Christ” by Mathias Grünewald. The masterpiece by Grünewald (actually Mathis Gothart Nithart) is dated around 1520 and is exhibited in the first south side chapel. The outbuildings house the city’s museum.
Address: Stiftsplatz

Our Lady
Our Lady is the oldest parish church in Aschaffenburg. On one wall of the early Gothic tower there is a tympanum from the 12th century, which represents the Mother of God between John and Catherine.
Address: Schlossgasse

Sand
Church The Sand Church is a richly decorated rococo church from 1756. The church contains a Vespers image from the 15th century.
Address:
Würzburger Strasse

Church of the former Jesuit college
The church of the former Jesuit college was built in 1621. It consists of a nave and a semicircular apse. The municipal gallery now uses the church as a space for changing art exhibitions.
Address: Pfaffengasse.

St. Agatha Church
The St. Agatha Church was built in the 12th century. The choir dates from 1280. Only the choir and the tower are preserved. The rest of the church was built in 1964 according to Heinzmenn’s plans.
Address: Erthalstraße 2a

Johannisburg Castle

Johannisburg Castle is an impressive Renaissance castle that the Bishop of Mainz and Elector Schweickard von Kronberg had built from 1605 to 1614 on the right, higher bank of the Main as a sign of his power and influence based on the designs of the Strasbourg architect Georg Ridinger. The castle keep, the mighty tower in the castle courtyard, comes from the previous building, a fortification that was destroyed in 1552. Today the imposing square with the towers towering at the corners is the symbol of the city. The reddish sandstone of the region in particular gives the castle its own character. The castle burned down during the war, but was restored down to the last detail in the post-war years. In Europe it is considered to be one of the most important buildings of the Renaissance.
Address: Schlossplatz

Parks

Schönbusch
Seen from the palace, the Schönbusch park is on the other side of the Main. The English complex with a labyrinth, pavilions and lakes dates from the 18th century. It is one of the most beautiful parks of its kind in Germany. The Archbishop of Mainz and Elector von Erthal gave the order to build it. The executing architects were Emanuel Josep d’Herigoyen, who was also responsible for the theater, and Ludwig Sckell. The Schönbusch concerts take place here in summer.
Address: Schönbuschallee

Schöntal
The Schöntal Park is located in the center of the city. His magnolia home in particular is a destination for walkers and tourists. In the middle of the park are the ruins of the Holy Sepulcher Church, surrounded by a moat.
Address: Between Platanenallee and Würzburger Straße

Pheasantry
A little further east of Schöntal Park is the pheasantry with its lake. The park is mainly used by walkers and joggers. Other visitors only come because of the beer garden located here.
Address: Deutsche Strasse

Aschaffenburg, Germany History

Shopping in Hungary

Shopping in Hungary

DUTY-FREE SHOPPING

Overview

The following articles can be imported into Hungary duty-free when entering from non-EU countries:

When entering by land: 40 cigarettes or 20 cigarillos or 10 cigars or 50 g tobacco;

For entry by air: 200 cigarettes or 100 cigarillos or 50 cigars or 250 g tobacco (from people over the age of 17).

1 liter of spirits with an alcohol content of more than 22% or 2 liters of spirits with an alcohol content of not more than 22% or sparkling wine;

4 l table wine;

16 liters of beer (from people older than 17 years);

Gifts / other goods up to a total value of € 430 (air and sea travel) or € 300 (travel by train / car); Children under 15 years of age generally € 150.

Import regulations

Travelers who bring meat and milk products into the EU from outside the European Union must register them. The regulation does not apply to the import of animal products from the EU countries as well as from Andorra, Liechtenstein, Norway, San Marino and Switzerland. Anyone who does not register these products must expect fines or criminal penalties.

Prohibited imports

Animal products that are not canned (e.g. meat, milk and dairy products) (see also import regulations). There is a general import ban on live poultry, meat and meat products from third countries (with the exception of the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Switzerland).

Import / export to the EU

The movement of goods within the EU is unrestricted for travelers, provided that the goods are intended for personal use and not for resale. In addition, the goods must not have been bought in duty-free shops. Proof of personal needs can be requested from travelers. Member States have the right to impose excise duties on spirits or tobacco products when these products are not intended for personal use.

The following maximum quantities apply as personal requirements:
800 cigarettes (people 17 and over);
400 cigarillos (people aged 17+);
200 cigars (people 17+);
1 kg tobacco (people aged 17 and over);
10 liters of high-proof alcoholic beverages (people aged 17 and over);
20 liters of fortified wine (e.g. port or sherry) (people aged 17 and over);
90 liters of wine (including a maximum of 60 liters of sparkling wine) (people aged 17 and over);
110 liters of beer (people aged 17+);
Perfumes and eau de toilette: No restrictions if it can be demonstrated that the amount is for personal consumption.
Medicines: amount according to personal needs during the trip.
Other goods: The movement of goods within the EU is unrestricted for travelers. However, gold alloys and gold plating in the unprocessed state or as a semi-finished product and fuel are excluded from this. Fuel may only be imported from an EC member state exempt from mineral oil tax if it is in the vehicle’s tank or in a reserve container carried with it. A fuel quantity of up to 10 liters in the reserve tank will not be rejected.

If additional quantities of these goods are carried, z. B. a wedding an event with which a bulk purchase could be justified.
Note: There are, however, certain exceptions to the regulation of the unrestricted movement of goods. They particularly concern the purchase of new vehicles and purchases for commercial purposes. (For more information on taxes on motor vehicles, see the European Commission’s guide “Buying goods and services in the internal market”).

Attention: 300 cigarettes (17+) can be imported from Hungary when entering Germany.

EU

Duty-free sales at airports and shipping ports have been abolished for travel within the EU. Only travelers who leave the EU can shop cheaply in the duty-free shop. When importing goods into an EU country that were bought in duty-free shops in another EU country, the same travel allowances and the same travel allowance apply as when entering from non-EU countries.

Shopping in Hungary

SHOP

Overview

Popular souvenirs are embroidered blouses and tablecloths, Herend and Zsolnay porcelain, woodwork and costume dolls. Bargain hunters should try their luck in Budapest at the Ecseri flea market or the so-called ‘Chinese market’ near the Kerepesi cemetery; There is a wide selection of antiques and knickknacks on both markets.

In Hungary you can find numerous foods and drinks that are ideal as souvenirs, such as sausages and spicy salami, tons of peppers, canned food with foie gras, caviar, wine and spirits. The best salami comes from Szeged in the south of the country. Caviar is relatively expensive and comes from Russia rather than Hungary. Paprika is available in seven different degrees of heat from mild to very hot and is offered in special gift boxes, which makes it a good souvenir for those who stayed at home. All of these goodies can be found in the markets in Budapest. The largest selection can be found in the Nagy Vásárcsarnok (Great Market Hall) in the center of Pest, which offers groceries and fresh produce on the ground floor and handicrafts on the upper floor.

Opening hours

Most shops open Mon-Wed, Fri 10 a.m.-6 p.m., Thu 10 a.m.-8 p.m., Sat 10 a.m.-1 p.m., grocery stores usually open Mon-Fri 7 a.m.-7 p.m., Sat 7 a.m.-2 p.m. Shopping centers are open Mon-Sat 10 a.m.-8 p.m.

Annotation

Tobacco products and spirits are sold in special shops without window displays; minors are not allowed in here.

Getting to Germany

Getting to Germany

GETTING THERE

Arriving by plane

Germany is served by over 100 international airlines. The national airline Lufthansa (LH) alone (Internet: www.lufthansa.com) connects Germany with more than 160 cities worldwide. Thanks to the global route network and coordinated flight schedules of the Star Alliance, travelers from Germany can reach more than 720 destinations worldwide.

From Austria: Lufthansa (LH), Eurowings (EW) and Austrian Airlines (OS)fly to German airports in regular service. From Vienna there are direct connections to Berlin, Munich, Düsseldorf, Hanover, Hamburg, Cologne / Bonn, Leipzig / Halle, Nuremberg, Stuttgart and Frankfurt / M. Additional connections: Linz – Düsseldorf, Salzburg / Linz – Berlin, Graz / Innsbruck / Klagenfurt / Linz / Salzburg – Frankfurt / M. as well as Linz – Leipzig / Halle.

From Switzerland: Lufthansa, Eurowings (EW) and Swiss (LX) offer scheduled flights from Zurich to Berlin, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Munich, Hamburg, Hanover, Cologne / Bonn, Leipzig / Halle, Nuremberg, Stuttgart and Frankfurt / M. at. Additional connections: Basel – Berlin, Basel – Dresden, Basel / Geneva – Frankfurt, Basel / Geneva – Düsseldorf, Basel / Geneva – Munich.

air Berlin flies from various major German cities to Vienna and Zurich, among others.

Flight times

Vienna – Frankfurt: 1 hour 25 minutes Zurich – Frankfurt: 1 hour

Arrival by car

A first-class road network connects Germany with all neighboring countries.

Long-distance bus: Numerous coach companies regularly travel to Germany. Ua Euro Lines (website: www.eurolines.com) and Flixbus (website: www.flixbus.de) drive from Austria and Switzerland to Germany.

Arriving by train

There are excellent rail connections between the Federal Republic of Germany and its European neighbors.

The most important train connections are listed below:

There are fast EuroCity and InterCityExpress connections from Deutsche Bahn (Internet: www.bahn.de) every 1 or 2 hours to, among others, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Warsaw, Prague, Brussels, Paris, Budapest, Vienna and Zurich.

The French high-speed train TGV (Internet: http://www.tgv.com/) connects Stuttgart with Paris (journey time: 3 hours 40 minutes) and Frankfurt with Paris (journey time: 3 hours 50 minutes).

ICE -Trains with tilting technology (ICE T) run from Zurich to Munich and Stuttgart.

The Austrian Railjet (Internet: www.oebb.at) runs five times a day, the ICE-T once a day between Vienna and Munich. The Railjet also connects Munich with Budapest via Vienna.
EuroNight trains run to Vienna, Budapest, Bucharest, Warsaw, Bologna, Florence, Naples, Rome and Paris, among others.

The Nightjet – night trains (website: www.oebb.at/de/angebote-ermaessigungen/nightjet) drive, inter alia, Austria and Switzerland to Germany:

Vienna – Linz – Frankfurt – Cologne – Düsseldorf;

Vienna – Linz – Hanover – Hamburg;

Innsbruck – Munich – Hamburg;

Innsbruck – Munich – Cologne – Düsseldorf;

Vienna – Dresden – Berlin and

Zurich – Basel – Berlin – Hamburg.

Thalys – high-speed trains (website: www.thalys.com/de/de) operate daily between Cologne and Aachen to Liege, Brussels and Paris. There are tiered tariff offers on Thalys trains as well as special offers for senior citizens and young people. There is a Thalys ticket sales point in Cologne Central Station, which also sells tickets for Eurostar, TGV, Lyria, Italo, Renfe and Elipsos trains.

From Brussels and Paris there are connections with the Eurostar (Internet: www.eurostar.com) through the Channel Tunnel to London.

The ICE International Amsterdamconnects Amsterdam (Netherlands) with Frankfurt / M. via Cologne and Amsterdam with Berlin via Hanover up to seven times a day every two hours. The ICE International Brussels connects Brussels (Belgium) with Frankfurt / M three times a day. in 3 hours 30 minutes.

Tickets and discounts for rail travel in Europe:
The most important economy / combination tickets and special offers for rail travel from Germany to other European countries are listed below. Detailed tariff / timetable information is available from the DB information centers.

InterRail: Children (4-11 years), young people (12-25 years) and adults (from 26 years) who have had a permanent residence in Europe, the former Soviet states or Turkey for at least 6 months can use InterRailuse.

The InterRail One-Country Pass is available for travel in almost 30 European countries including Macedonia and Turkey and is valid for 3, 4, 6, 8 days within 1 month in one country. Children aged 4-11 travel at half the adult price.

The InterRail Global Pass enables travel through several countries and is offered with different periods of validity. Either 5 days out of 10 days total validity or 10 out of 22 can be selected. A continuous period of 22 days or 1 month is also possible.

RAILPLUS:As an addition to the BahnCard, RAILPLUS enables a reduction of 25% on cross-border rail travel to 29 European countries, but not on purely domestic transport in the destination country.

SparNight: Limited offer for overnight trips through Germany, Denmark, Italy, Austria and Switzerland. Applies to travel on EuroNight trains.

Eastern Europe saver fare: Under certain conditions, you can travel with this offer to the following Eastern European countries at a discount: Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Poland (not on the trains of the Berlin-Warszawa Express), Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. Further information is available at http://www.bahn.de/p/view/angebote/international/sparpreis.shtml.

Motorail trains
A car train will connect Lörrach with Hamburg from May 2017 (Internet: www.urlaubs-express.de).

An ÖBB car train (Internet: www.oebb.at/de/leistungen-und-services/mehr-als-zug/auto-motorrad-am-zug) runs on the routes

– between Vienna and Hamburg, Düsseldorf and

– between Innsbruck and Hamburg, Düsseldorf.

Arrival by ship

The Danube (Internet: www.danube-river.org) connects Germany with the Danube countries. A wide variety of shipping lines offer regular ferry connections to Germany. The most important of these are:

Bodenseeschifffahrt (Internet: www.bodenseeschifffahrt.de): Romanshorn / Switzerland – Friedrichshafen; Bregenz / Austria – Constance.

Color Line (Internet: www.colorline.de): Oslo / Norway – Kiel.
Krantas Shipping (Internet: http://www.randburg.com/li/krantas.html): Klaipeda / Lithuania – Kiel.

DFDS Seaways (Internet: www.dfdsseaways. Com): Klaipeda / Lithuania – Kiel.

Scandlines(Internet: www.scandlines.de): Rødby / Denmark – Puttgarden / Fehmarn; Gedser / Denmark – Rostock; Trelleborg / Sweden – Rostock; Trelleborg / Sweden – Sassnitz / Rügen; Ventspils / Latvia – Rostock.

Stena Line (Internet: www.stenaline.com): Gothenburg / Sweden – Kiel.
TT-Line (Internet: www.ttline.de): Trelleborg / Sweden – Rostock; Trelleborg / Sweden – Travemünde.

Finnlines (Internet: www.finnlines.com): Lübeck / Travemünde – Rostock – Gdynia / Poland – Helsinki / Finland).

Further information is available from the Verband der Fährschiffahrt & Fährouristik eV, Esplanade 6, D-20354 Hamburg (Tel: (040) 35 09 72 33. Internet:www.faehre-vff.de).

Getting to Germany

ETA – Euskadi Ta Askatasuna

ETA – Euskadi Ta Askatasuna

Voters betray “ETA party”

The 2001 regional election was a major defeat for Euskal Herritarrok, who won about 10 percent of the vote and lost half of his 14 seats. After the election loss, some of EH’s leaders were replaced, and some veterans who criticized ETA’s methods were said to have left the party. At the same time, the party changed its name to Batasuna ( Unity ). Spanish media interpreted the changes as meaning that the party has now chosen a more radical separatist path.

The Nationalist Party strengthened its position in the election and PNV leader Juan José Ibarretxe was able to remain as the region’s president, now with a minority government supported by a couple of small parties in the Basque parliament. Note: Euskadi Ta Askatasuna is also known as ETA on abbreviationfinder.

The noose is tightened around ETA

When the fight against international terrorism came to the fore after the attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, the Spanish government was given opportunities to intensify the hunt for the country’s own terrorists. Spain was able to use the US electronic electronic interception system Echelon, which helped to trace important ETA cells.

In October, one of the organization’s most notorious support groups, the Donosti Command, was arrested in San Sebastián. In a joint operation in the border areas, Spanish and French police arrested one of ETA’s leading figures. In total, almost 200 ETA members had now been arrested since the ceasefire ended in 1999.

When the EU compiled a list of terrorist organizations after the terrorist attacks in the United States, Spain got through its demand to include ETA as well as some of the movement’s subgroups, including the support group for ETA prisoners, Gestoras Pro Amnistía . The left-wing guerrilla group Grapo was also declared a terrorist group. The decision meant a ban on supporting these groups in any way and it became possible to seize their financial assets.

ETA’s political branch is banned

The Spanish government wanted to go further and in June 2002 passed a bill in the Spanish Parliament banning parties that support terrorism. It was aimed at Batasuna, which was no longer allowed to engage in any open political activity.

The party had never condemned ETA’s acts of violence and the government considered itself to have sufficient evidence that it was in fact a front organization for ETA. The ban made it more difficult for members of Batasuna and other support organizations to raise money for ETA’s activities and to recruit new ETA members through Batasuna’s youth organization. The Supreme Court later decided to seize all of Batasuna’s bank assets after the party refused to comply with a call from the country’s leading investigating judge, Baltasar Garzón, to pay multi-million sums in compensation to the victims of ETA’s violence.

In March 2003, the Spanish Supreme Court decided to completely ban Batasuna as a party. It was the first time since the introduction of democracy that a political party was banned in Spain. Despite the ban on the party, many Batasuna members remained in political positions in several smaller towns and municipalities. The ban sparked protests in the Basque Country and ETA carried out new attacks.

ETA greatly weakened

The Spanish authorities estimated that ETA’s hard core in the years around the turn of the century consisted of only 30 to 40 members. But they, and an approximately equal group of activists closest to the inner core, were significantly decimated in the years 2002-2005. Many young ETA members were caught early in their careers.

At the end of 2003, the Spanish Minister of the Interior declared that ETA was now weaker than ever before. About 170 suspects were arrested in 2003 alone, partly as a result of both Spanish and French agents succeeding in infiltrating the organization.

Demands for a referendum on increased independence

The increasing pressure on the Basque separatists led to stronger nationalist currents in the Basque Country. The PNV-led regional government considered Garzón’s actions aimed at “a majority of the Basque people”. The Great Nationalist Party decided to make more far-reaching demands on Madrid. A main reason may have been that PNV also wanted support from the Basques who used to vote for Batasuna.

In the autumn of 2003, the region’s leader Ibarretxe presented a proposal for a Basque region in a “free union” with Spain, a free state with, among other things, its own legal system where the people have both Basque and Spanish citizenship. In a referendum, the Basques would have their say on the proposal.

The reaction in Madrid was strongly negative as the plan was contrary to the Spanish Constitution and the proposal was rejected by the Spanish Parliament.

The regional election in April 2005, where a yes or no to the Ibarretxe plan was seen as the most important issue, was a setback for PNV, which lost four seats. The newly formed Communist Party of the Basque Country (Ehak) received over 12 percent of the vote, probably from many Batasuna sympathizers.

ETA - Euskadi Ta Askatasuna

OSCE – Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe

OSCE – Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe

Disarmament

The main result of the OSCE’s disarmament work is the CFE Agreement (Agreement on Conventional Forces in Europe; see Progress). This agreement involved the scrapping of 50,000 major weapons systems in Europe. The millennial dream of forging swords into plowshares thus seemed to come true. The agreement did not initially concern all OSCE participating States, but only members of the former Warsaw Pact and NATO. According to abbreviationfinder, OSCE is known as Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe.

The CFE agreement involves a comprehensive exchange of military information and close surveillance of military forces, as well as radical cuts, especially in the former Soviet Union, of five categories of conventional weapons: tanks, artillery, armored vehicles, fighter jets and attack helicopters.

The agreement covers the entire European area from the Atlantic to the Urals. This originally meant that each side, formerly the Warsaw Pact and NATO, was not allowed to have more than 20,000 tanks, 30,000 armored vehicles, 20,000 artillery pieces, 6,800 fighter jets and 2,000 attack helicopters in this area. In addition, Russia must destroy or rework a large number of tanks, armored vehicles and artillery pieces, which the Soviet Union had moved to the area east of the Urals before the CFE agreement was signed. The cuts were completed on 15 November 1995. The CFE Agreement is valid indefinitely and, unlike the OSCE Agreements, is a legally binding treaty. The Treaty was later supplemented by a politically binding agreement, CFE 1a,

The CFE agreement has an efficient control machinery. Thousands of inspectors check that the agreement is complied with. This also gives the parties a significant insight into the other party’s military apparatus and knowledge of his thinking. So far, everyone has followed the demanding provisions of the agreement, with only minor deviations.

There is no doubt that the CFE agreement has made a significant contribution to European security. This benefits not only the parties to the agreement, but also other European countries. It is often said that there is hardly any OSCE State that does not describe the CFE Agreement as a “cornerstone” of European security architecture.

Despite this, various problems with the application of the agreement soon arose. Following the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union and later NATO enlargement with new member states from the former Warsaw Pact, the balance sheet thinking that permeated the CFE agreement faltered.

In 1996, it was agreed to revise and make some adjustments to the agreement in order to adapt it to the new security policy situation in Europe. That review was completed in 1999, and a new, adapted CFE agreement could be signed at the Istanbul Summit the same year. Even states that were not part of the original CFE agreement between NATO and the Warsaw Pact were given the opportunity to join if they so wished. However, Sweden is not included in the agreement.

A number of countries, mainly NATO members, never ratified the adapted CFE agreement. They considered that Russia was not fulfilling its commitments from the Istanbul meeting to withdraw Russian troops and military equipment from Moldova. Russia, in turn, suspended its implementation of the adapted CFE agreement in 2007 on the grounds that the agreement had not been ratified by NATO countries.

In March 2015, Russia also suspended its participation in the CFE Joint Consultative Group, a forum for discussing arms control, thus closing a communication channel to the West and completely terminating its commitments under the CFE. The move was seen as a direct result of the conflict between Russia and NATO that erupted after the Russian annexation of the Ukrainian peninsula of Crimea in March 2014 and later Russia’s support for separatists in eastern Ukraine. The events in Ukraine to some extent brought Europe back to the Cold War that prevailed until the early 1990’s.

In 2000, the OSCE Security Forum adopted a document on small arms. The countries have committed themselves to control the manufacture, sale, marking and possession of small arms.

The human dimension

The human dimension is a concept that first began to be used during the two-year Vienna meeting, which began in 1986. The term usually refers to issues relating to human rights, democracy and the rule of law.

The principle of respect for human rights was enshrined in the 1975 Final Act, and over the next two decades Member States adopted additional regulations and developed controls on their compliance. For the revolutionary transition to a democratic system of society in Eastern Europe in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, the principles of human rights served as a catalyst. Not least important for cooperation in the human dimension is that all OSCE States now accept transparency and interference in each other’s affairs.

During the Vienna Summit, the control of respect for human rights was developed through the so-called Vienna Mechanism, a procedure for exchanging information on the human rights situation in the participating states. This gave one state the right to demand information from another state on human rights issues and the right to request a meeting. The requested state is obliged to respond and to appear at requested meetings. In addition, OSCE States have the right to disseminate information on human rights to other States Parties.

Another of the advances of the Vienna Summit was the decision to hold a conference on the human dimension, which, to the great surprise of the West, was based on a Soviet proposal. The conference on the human dimension was divided into three different meetings: the first in Paris in 1989, the second in Copenhagen in 1990 and the third, finally, in Moscow in 1991.

The Paris meeting was held in a chilly east-west climate and ended without any concrete results.

At the Copenhagen summit, the political situation in Europe had changed radically, and the results were therefore far-reaching. In addition to agreeing on commitments in a number of areas, the states also agreed that future societies would be based on democracy, the rule of law and human rights.

The conference in Moscow took place only a few weeks after the failed coup attempt against the then Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in the autumn of 1991. The meeting sharpened the former Vienna mechanism by introducing the possibility of using experts and reporters. Among other things, it became possible for a Member State to invite an expert group to assist in resolving an issue related to the human dimension. The organization was also given the right to send up to three rapporteurs to a state against its will, if it is considered that there is a serious threat to any of the commitments within the human dimension.

The monitoring of the human dimension also takes place in other forms. The mandate of the field missions often includes some form of monitoring and advice on human rights, the judiciary or democracy. The task of the minority commissioner to identify threatening hotbeds of conflict where minorities are involved is also of central importance.

There is also a special secretariat for democratic institutions and human rights, the ODIHR, which monitors the elections in various OSCE States and is democratic and fair, and which has a certain responsibility to monitor the implementation of the human dimension. During the first years of the 21st century, election observation became a source of controversy, especially between Russia and other member states, as OSCE observers criticized the electoral process in several former Soviet republics. Russia has accused OSCE observers of double standards and attempts to incite political upheaval in Georgia and Ukraine, among others.

The disagreement will concern such fundamental issues as the OSCE’s legitimacy as an organization, its activities and the values ​​on which it will be based.

The disagreement intensified in the following years. Russia, Belarus and several other countries of the former Soviet Union claimed that the ODIHR had a political bias and too quickly came up with accusations of electoral fraud instead of acting as a support for the host country. When Russia, in the run-up to its parliamentary elections in December 2007, only agreed to issue visas to 300 ODIHR election monitors, the organization chose not to send any at all.

Russia has called for a better balance between the OSCE’s three original “dimensions” – security, economic and human.

OSCE - Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe

The 10 top honeymoon destinations

The 10 top honeymoon destinations

A wedding is one of the most beautiful experiences you can have in your life. On this day you marry the love of your life and you promise it eternal loyalty, support and affection. But a wedding must also be planned so that it can be a wonderful day and of course the honeymoon also belongs to the wedding.

In order for the honeymoon to be unforgettable, you should talk to your future spouse as early as possible about what ideas you have about the honeymoon and what wishes you would like to fulfill. Sometimes you have to compromise, because not everyone has the same taste. But which countries or cities are particularly suitable for honeymoons? Would you rather go to the sun and the sea or is a city trip the perfect choice for a honeymoon? Below are the top 10 honeymoon destinations.

Hawaii, Pacific Ocean

The remoteness of this island is the perfect place to start your marriage.

Paris, France

It is not for nothing that Paris is called the city of love, because couples who are in love and newlyweds regularly get lost in this city.

Bali, Indian Ocean

In Bali you can also make yourself comfortable on your honeymoon on the white sandy beaches.

Venice, Italy

Venice is also a very romantic city that is often visited during honeymoons. You can sit in one of the gondolas with your spouse and glide through the canals or take a romantic night stroll through the narrow streets.

Greece

Greece has a lot of pages that are ideal for a beautiful honeymoon. You can spend your honeymoon, for example, on islands like Rhodes with their cute white houses and blue shutters, or you can visit a cosmopolitan city with a history like Athens.

Maldives, Indian Ocean

No place is better suited for a dreamlike and heavenly honeymoon than the Maldives.

Rome, Italy

If you read Roma the other way around, it’s called Cupid and that’s why this impressive city is also suitable for a honeymoon.

New York City, United States

If you love the big city flair, New York is the perfect honeymoon destination.

Caribbean

In the Caribbean, you can forget all your worries during your honeymoon and enjoy a few heavenly weeks by the sea.

Las Vegas, United States

Las Vegas is not only useful for a short-term wedding, but also for the subsequent honeymoon, because here you can test your fresh luck directly in a casino.

Las Vegas, United States

England Famous Philosophers and Theologians Part II

England Famous Philosophers and Theologians Part II

Wilhelm von Ockham (about 1285-1347)
English philosopher and theologian. Wilhelm von Ockham was born in Ockham around 1285 and trained in the Franciscan order. He studied theology at Oxford University. He left behind writings on natural philosophy and theological as well as works on logic and politics. Von Ockham is considered one of the leading exponents of nominalism.

Matthew Parker (1504-1575)
Archbishop of Canterbury and Reformer of England. Parker was born in Norwich in 1504. He studied at Cambridge and became a deacon, then a priest in 1527 and finally Archbishop of Canterbury in 1559. During his career he was strongly influenced by the so-called Cambridge Reformers, whose chaplain he was appointed after Anne Boleyn was put on the throne. Parker died in Lambeth in 1575.

Nicholas Ridley (c. 1500-1555)
Bishop of Rochester and Anglican martyr. Ridley was born into a distinguished family in Northumberland around 1500 and studied at Cambridge. As a priest-professor he temporarily moved to Paris and a few years after his return became the highest proctor of the University of Cambridge. In 1547, Ridley was ordained Bishop of Rochester. He was executed under Maria I in 1555 – along with Hugh Latimer.

Lord Robert Runcie (1921-2000)
Archbishop of Canterbury 1980-1991. Robert Runcie was born in Liverpool in 1921 as the son of an electrical engineer. He studied Ancient History and Literature at Oxford during World War II and volunteered for combat. Runcie became a priest in the early 1950s. In 1980 Margaret Thatcher named him Archbishop of Canterbury. Runcie wed the Prince of Wales to Lady Diana in 1981.

John of Salisbury (ca.1115-1180)
theologian, scholastic. John of Salisbury was born in England around 1115 and received his training from the famous Pierre Abélard in Paris, who made a significant contribution to making Salisbury one of the most popular theologians of his time. He is also seen as a thought leader in the English Enlightenment. One of his role models was Aristotle. Von Salisbury died in Chartres in 1180.

Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713)
moral philosopher, politician. Anthony Ashley-Cooper was born in London in 1671 and grew up in the famous Exeter House. As a philosopher, he played an enlightening role that contradicted Hobbe’s philosophy of egoism. The essence of harmony was of central importance in his views. Its influence on subsequent generations is enormous, so it was very well received by Leibniz, Herder, Diderot and others. Ashley-Cooper died in Naples in 1713.

David Sheppard (1929-2005)
Bishop of Liverpool. Sheppard was born in Surrey in 1929 and studied in Cambridge. At first he distinguished himself as a cricketer over many years. Sheppard was very active in his church career and was one of the pioneers of “Faith in the City”. In 1998 he received the honorary title of Baron Sheppard of Liverpool. Sheppard died in Liverpool in 2005.

William Tyndale (c. 1448-1536)
priest and scholar, translator of the Bible into English. Tyndale was born in North Nibley around 1448. He studied at Oxford and Cambridge. His translation of the Bible was most widely used to date, due to the invention of the printing press. He introduced entirely new words into his mother tongue. However, the work was banned in England. Tyndale was executed in Vilvoorde in 1536 for his translation.

Chad Varah (1911-2007)
clergyman and founder of the Samaritans (telephone counseling). Varah was born in Barton-upon-Humber in 1911, the first of nine children of a priest. He studied at Keble College in Oxford, among others. In 1953 he set up the Samaritans, a telephone counseling service on a non-clerical basis. Between 1953 and 2003 he was also the church leader of a London congregation. Varah died in Basingstoke in 2007.

Baroness Mary Warnock (born 1924)
philosopher and writer of existentialism. Warnock was born in Winchester in 1924, the youngest of seven children to a wealthy family. She studied at Oxford, then became an honorary member and taught philosophy at the university. In 2008 she was charged with campaigning for euthanasia in people with dementia. She also takes the view that religion cannot be the basis of political decisions.

John Bainbridge Webster (1955)
Anglican theologian. Webster was born in Mansfield in 1955 and studied in Cambridge. He worked as a chaplain and tutor at Durham University, and later as a professor in Oxford and Aberdeen. He writes recognized writings in the field of social, historical and moral theology.

William Wilberforce (1759-1833)
Protestant reformer, front fighter against the slave trade. Wilberforce was born in Kingston upon Hull in 1759 and studied at Cambridge University. He was elected to the British House of Commons. Later he dealt with India, freedom, religion and campaigned vehemently against the slave trade in Great Britain. Wilberforce died in Chelsea in 1833, days after British slavery was abolished after decades of struggle.

Thomas Wolsey (circa 1475-1530)
Cardinal and Archbishop of York and founder of Christ Church College in Oxford. Wolsey was born in Ipswich around 1475 and studied theology at Oxford. This was followed by ordination, doctor of theology, appointment as a Roman Catholic cardinal and finally the post of English Lord Chancellor. For a long time he was considered the most powerful man in England until he was charged with high treason. Wolsey died in Leicester in 1530.

John Wyclif (Wycliffe), (about 1330-1384)
philosopher, theologian and religious reformer. Wycliffe was born in Yorkshire around 1330. He studied at Oxford and later headed Balliol College. In his teachings he took the view “power only through grace” and denied the Pope his claim to political power. The people admired him, the rulers persecuted him. Wyclif died after suffering a stroke in 1284.

John Wyclif

England Famous Philosophers and Theologians Part I

England Famous Philosophers and Theologians Part I

Francis Bacon (1561-1621)
philosopher, writer, statesman and pioneer of empiricism. Bacon was born in London in 1561, studied various subjects in Cambridge from the age of 14 and lived with his brother Anthony, who later became a spy. He left behind many valuable philosophical and legal writings. The saying “knowledge is power” comes from Bacon. He died in Highgate in 1621.

Roger Bacon (1214-1292 or 1294)
Franciscan monk and philosopher. Bacon was born near Illchester in 1214 and studied at Oxford University, where he also briefly taught. He later went to Paris University to teach in Europe’s intellectual center. In history he is an advocate pioneer of empirical methods. Bacon became a Franciscan monk at an advanced age and eventually died in Oxford. He was called “Doctor Mirabilis” – “wonderful teacher”.

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
philosopher, social reformer, lawyer. Jeremy Bentham was born in Spitalfields in 1748 to a lawyer and studied at Oxford. He was considered a radical and campaigned for women’s suffrage and also for freedom of the press. He also called for the abolition of the penalty for homosexuality and was a spearhead of utilitarianism. Democracy was also very important to him. Bentham, who usually thought far ahead of his time, died in London in 1832.

Lady Anne Conway (1631-1679)
The philosopher was born Anne Fich in London in 1631 and spent her childhood in what is now Kensington Palace. During her short life, she maintained an intensive philosophical exchange with the Platonist Henry More. Jewish Kabbalah, Quakerism and the teachings of Descartes shaped Conway’s views. With her debut and only work called “The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy” she exerted a significant influence on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Conway died in her native town in 1679.

Ralph Cudworth (1617-1688)
philosopher and theologian. Ralph Cudworth was born in Somerset in 1617, the son of a minister. After studying in Cambridge, he was given a chair in Hebrew studies and was henceforth titled Regius Professor. Cudworth belonged to the Cambridge Platonists and placed emphasis on human free will in his studies. His epistemology was based on the concept of relation. Cudworth died in Cambridge in 1688.

John Graham (1794-1865)
Bishop of Chester, English academic and tutor to Charles Darwin. Graham was born in Claypath in 1794 and educated at Cambridge. In the university town he was appointed deacon in 1818, later head of Christ College and from 1834 vice chancellor of the university. He was Charles Darwin’s tutor during his studies. In 1848 Graham became Bishop of Chester. He died there in 1865.

John Harvard (1607-1638)
English-American theologian. Harvard was born in London in 1607 and studied at Cambridge. Five years later he moved to America with his wife and became a Doctor of the Church. He died in Massachusetts in 1638 and bequeathed half his fortune and his library to an educational institution. Harvard University was named after him to show its gratitude for the donation, which in turn paved the way for the university system in the USA.

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
philosopher and state theorist. Hobbes was born in Westport in 1588, the son of a minister. Recognized as a child prodigy, he studied at Oxford University at the age of 17. Hobbes most famous work is “Leviathan”, which contains his theory of absolutism. He also dealt intensively with egoism and represented it. He died in Hardwick Hall in 1679.

Charles Kingsley (1819-1875)
Anglican clergyman, theologian, and writer. Kingsley was born in Devon in 1819. He studied in London and Cambridge. He later taught at Cambridge, was chaplain to Queen Victoria from 1859 and became a decade later to the canons of Chester and Westminster Abbey (1873). As a writer, he excelled in particular with the children’s book “Die Wasserkinder”. Kingsley died in Hampshire in 1875.

Hugh Latimer (ca.1485/1492-1555)
bishop and Anglican martyr. Latimer was born a farmer’s son in Leicestershire between 1485 and 1492 and later studied at Cambridge for his academic achievements. Latimer was appointed university minister in 1522. He was a radical advocate of the Reformation, supported the planned divorce from Henry VIII and made many enemies. Latimer was made Bishop of Rochester and Worcester, but was eventually executed under Mary I at Oxford in 1555.

JB Lightfoot (1828-1889)
Anglican Bishop of Durham and British theologian. Joseph Barber Lightfoot was born in Liverpool in 1828. He studied at Cambridge and later became a Fellow and Professor at Trinity College. In 1866 he became a Whitehall preacher, in 1871 a canon at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London and finally in 1879 Bishop of Durham. Lightfoot researched the Bible using new methods before he died in Bournemouth in 1889.

John Locke (1632-1704)
philosopher, psychologist, educator, father of liberalism. John Locke was born in Wrington in 1632. His father was a lawyer. Locke studied medicine and philosophy at Oxford and advanced to become one of the trend-setting representatives of empiricism in Great Britain. The member of the London Royal Society left behind several works, including “Two Treatises of Government” (1690) among the most important. Locke, who exerted great influence during his lifetime, including the American Declaration of Independence, died in Oates in 1704.

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
philosopher, sociologist, political economist. John Stuart Mill was born in Pentonville in 1806 as a descendant of the philosopher James Mill. Even as a teenager he dealt with a wide variety of doctrines such as logic and metaphysics. In his philosophy, the principle of experience plays the decisive role in gaining knowledge. The term dystopia (as opposed to utopia) also goes back to him. Mill became one of the most influential positivists of his century. Mill died in Avignon in 1873.

Henry More (1614-1687)
philosopher, poet. Henry More was born into a wealthy family in Grantham in 1614 and later studied at Eton. He led the group of the Cambridge Platonists. The core of his philosophy was the immortality of the soul. After intensive correspondence with the philosopher Anne Consway, he dedicated his book “Antidote against Atheism”, which came out in 1653, to her. Many other writings against materialism and atheism were published by him. More died in Cambridge in 1687.

Henry More

Kosovo Social Security

Kosovo Social Security

Proportion of literate adults: 91.9% (2007)

Major religions: Islam, Christianity (Serbian-Orthodox, Roman-Cat.)

Urban population: 38% (2012)

Life expectancy (female / male): 81.6 years (2016)

Gender Inequality Index: –

Birth rate: 2.0 (2018)

Infant mortality: 10.6 per 1000 births (2018)

In 2001, a three-pillar pension system was established in Kosovo under the supervision of the World Bank and USAID introduced. In 2015, the pension expenditure of all pension benefits amounted to 4.5% of GDP. The first pillar comprises a basic pension that covers all persons who are permanently resident in Kosovo and who have reached the retirement age of 65 years. The corresponding pension payments are set at a flat rate of € 75 and therefore do not have any reference to the career history of the pensioners. The so-called wage replacement rate, which is around 17%, can be calculated from the ratio between the basic pension and the average wage. The basic pension is financed from the public budget. In 2018, 127,000 beneficiaries received the basic pension, which corresponds to 7.1% of the total population. The second pillar of the pension system follows the individualized funded principle. This pension system is compulsory for all employees born after 1946 and formally employed. 10% of the earned income (shared equally between employer and employee) is invested in an individual asset account each month, which is dated from Kosovo Pensions Savings Trust is managed. Upon retirement, the accumulated assets are transferred to a pension insurance scheme from which pension benefits are granted once or monthly. The total number of active contributors in this pillar was around 244,000 in 2017. Less than 7% of the special assets that have accrued to date (€ approx. 1,500 million, 2017) will be invested in Kosovo. Between 2002 and 2015, the Kosovo Pensions Saving Trust generated an annual return of 2.17%. The third pillar comprises voluntary, individually made pension payments as well as additional employer-financed pensions. The relevance of these optional pensions is negligible.

According to THESCIENCETUTOR, the law on the status and rights of families of martyrs, invalids and members of the UÇK as well as of civilian victims of war regulates the various benefits in favor of war disabled persons, e.g. B. family, disability or survivors’ pensions, but also tax exemptions, employment benefits or easier access to educational institutions. Pension benefits range from € 40 for civil war invalids to € 534 for families with four or more members who belonged to the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and are considered missing. 201813,138 relatives of martyrs and invalids received a corresponding rent, in total approx. € 40.8 million and 38,345 war veterans received a veteran’s pension, in total € 70.1 million – together these social expenditures make up 1.7% of GDP. The level of expenditure in this service category has risen sharply in recent years and is likely to continue to rise. The services are almost entirely concentrated on the Albanian majority.

The basic social security law covers two categories of benefit recipients. Category I defines families as beneficiaries in which all family members are temporarily or permanently unavailable for the labor market, e.g. B. Children up to 14 years, young people up to 18 years, if they are integrated into the education system, single parents with at least one child under 15 years, people with severe and permanent disabilities over 18 years, older people over 65 years. Category II comprises those families in which at least one family member is available to the labor market and in which at least one child younger than 5 years or an orphan younger than 15 years is cared for. The benefits from both categories are linked to strict means tests. The monthly benefit varies from € 50 for a single person to a maximum of € 150 for a family with seven or more members, which corresponds to a wage replacement rate of 11.2% (individual). In 2018, around 25,345 families with around 103,409 family members received social assistance, a proportion of the population of 6%. At around € 32.9 million, or a share of 0.5% of GDP, the total expenditure is low. In Kosovo there are two special institutions that specialize in the care of adults with mental illnesses (in Shtime) and in the care of the elderly (in Prishtina). In addition, five municipal facilities for people with intellectual disabilities and facilities for the elderly were recently opened. The institutions in Shtime and Prishtina have been repeated with in the past linked to human rights abuses.

The capacities of institutionally provided social services are very limited. In addition, only a few locally accessible outpatient services have established themselves so far. One of the reasons for this is that the municipalities are financially heavily dependent on transfer payments from the state budget. The demand for care services is significantly lower than elsewhere in Europe due to the specific demographic reality in Kosovo, but also due to the pronounced role of traditional family structures. However, the demand will increase in the medium term, especially against the background of falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy, socio-structural changes, but also with regard to the migration movements in Kosovo.

Kosovo Jashari monument, Prekaz

5 Attractions in Iceland

5 Attractions in Iceland

In recent years, our Scandinavian neighbor Iceland has become a very popular travel destination, and rightly so. Has this piece of sugar not yet caught your interest? Let me then tempt you with five sights that can turn the tables!

Yes, many of us long to be able to get on a bus, train or plane and get to a better place, without having to be dragged along with all the duties and challenges of everyday life. Sometimes we want to get away even when we can not afford it. While some choose to borrow for travel , others choose to wait to move. If you are going to make the decision to borrow money, it is of course very important to review the terms.

Black beach in Reynisfjära

According to Softwareleverage, Iceland is known for its beautiful landscapes and environments. One of the country’s most famous tourist destinations for those who want a sight to behold is the black beach in Reynisfjära. The coastal area has received a lot of attention around the world and major film productions such as Star Wars and Game of Thrones have been filmed there.

The blue Lagoon

Craving for natural and highly relaxing treatment for the body? The Blue Lagoon is what is called a “geothermal spa” and has become one of Iceland’s most visited tourist destinations. It is located in something as exotic as in a lava field. Next time I go to Iceland I will definitely make a trip there.

Skaftafell

No country that attracts tourists for the beautiful views and environments would be complete without a national park? Skaftafell was founded in the autumn of 1967 and consists of almost five thousand square meters of natural beauty. There is also a camping area for those who want to spend more in the park and have time to see everything it has to offer. Perfect for the family as the children do not learn to have a boring time there.

Húsey

If you, like many others, need to get a little closer to yourself and find inner peace, the Húsey area is right for you. There are great landscapes to walk on and a popular retreat center. It is also possible to ride an Icelandic pony.

Hekla volcano

The volcano is one of the coolest phenomena in the world, but it is very rare that we actually get the chance to see them in real life. In Iceland there are several volcanoes to witness and the coolest is probably Hekla, which is about 1500 meters high and one of the country’s most active. Just do not hope it gets an outbreak when you are there!

There we have it, five sights in Iceland. Do you get the urge to go?

5 Attractions in Iceland

Shopping in Barcelona

Shopping in Barcelona

Barcelona is the dream city for the most shopping-loving. The selection of shops is huge, all the well-known brands are represented, and you will also find local designs that can be absolutely phenomenal. Prices are generally somewhat lower than we are used to in Norway, but not necessarily when it comes to the most luxurious brands.

Shopping in Barcelona

Here you will find the best shopping:

  • Passeig de Gracia– This is one of the two most important shopping streets. Passeig de Gracia starts at Placa de Catalunya and goes uphill towards the mountains. Here you will find the most exclusive stores such as Gucci, Dolce & Gabbana, Prada and Jimmy Choo, as well as stores for watches, jewelry and accessories such as Swarovski, Bvlgari, Rolex, and others.
  • Portal del Angel– This shopping street also starts on Placa de Catalunya, and goes in the direction of the port and beaches of Barcelona. Here they go especially in the big chains such as Zara, H&M, Mango and Massimo Dutti, in addition to smaller shoe stores, as well as the occasional store with local design.
  • El Corte Ingles– This is the largest department store in Europe. Located on Placa de Catalunya, El Corte Ingles is set over 9 floors. Each of the floors is divided according to to make shopping easier, such as a separate floor for men’s clothing, one for children’s clothing, one for accessories, and so on. The department store contains not only fashion, although this dominates, but also electronics, furniture, and much more, in addition to one of the city’s largest supermarkets.

Five shopping centers:

  • Maremagnum– shopping center down at the harbor which is open on Sundays. The address is Moll d’Espanya 5.
  • Las Arenas– shopping center in a former bullring. The address is Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes 373.
  • El Triangle– small but good shopping center on Placa de Catalunya 1-4.
  • Diagonal Mar– Shopping center near Mar Bella Beach, and right next to the Hilton hotel. The address is Avinguda Diagonal 3.
  • Centro Comercial Glories– good shopping center if you need fashion clothes. The address is Avinguda Diagonal 208.

Looking for something special?

  • Calle Verdi (in the Gracia district) is the street to shop in if you are looking for local design.
  • Calle Tallers (in the El Raval district) is the street to shop in if you are looking for used and vintage.
  • El Bornis the district you want to go to if you want to go in fancy boutiques.
  • Calle Seneca 28 is the address you want to go to if you are looking for design from Lydia Delgado, Spain’s fashion queen.
  • La Roca Village north of Barcelona (half an hour by taxi, some more by train) is the place for outlet shopping (about 100 shops and brands). Great opportunities to save a lot of money!

Shopped a lot? Get some of your money back

Since we are not full members of the EU, we have the right to get the VAT back when we shop in Spain, among other places. This does not apply to drinks, food, accommodation, tickets and such, but merchandise such as clothing and electronics.

IVA (VAT in Spanish) is currently 21%, and you get it again when you shop in stores with the sticker in the window that says “Tax Free Shopping Service”. You must shop for more than 90 Euros, and the refund form must be completed correctly.

Allow yourself plenty of time at the airport, because that’s where you get your money back. You must first visit a separate counter for customs, and you may be asked to present the goods for which you require a refund. There you will then receive a check that you cash in at the exchange office next door. Remember that it can be long queues.

Five exciting festivals in Barcelona

In this city, it is almost always an exciting festival to join in. Thus, it does not matter when in the year you visit Barcelona. Nevertheless, we have selected five of the most exciting and fun festivals, all in very different genres. Maybe one of them is for you? Remember that both flights, hotels and festival tickets can be picked up quickly, especially if there are several events in the city at the same time. Start planning early!

  • La Mercè– This festival is held in honor of the Mare de Déu de la Mercè, Barcelona’s patron saint. La Mercè is held every year and lasts one week until 24 September. Here you can experience fantastic dancing, costumes and an insane fireworks show.
  • Barcelona Carnival– The Barcelona Carnival is a month-long event that takes place every year from the beginning of February to the beginning of March. The most important parades and parties, however, are the first week. The carnival in the city is a tradition that started as early as 1333.
  • Voll-Damm Festival Internacional de Jazz de Barcelona– The Jazz Festival lasts for a full two months, and is considered one of Europe’s finest of its kind. Here you can hear and see top bands and artists from all over the world, at concerts that take place all over the city. The concerts are often paired with other events, such as food or wine festivals.
  • Sala Montjuic– The film festival, where all the films are shown outdoors, usually lasts from the beginning of July to the beginning of August. The canvases are set up on Montjuic Hill, and everything from classics to indie films are shown. Sit outside in beautiful surroundings, have a drink, and enjoy a good movie after the sun goes down in Barcelona.
  • Festa de Sant Medir– The festival for those who have a sugar tooth! Tons of sweets are given away in the parade that takes place in the Gracia district every year on March 3. When all the candy is consumed, it all ends with fireworks and fun.
Shopping and Eating in Zurich, Switzerland

Shopping and Eating in Zurich, Switzerland

Zurich is one of the largest cities in the country of Switzerland.

Shopping in Zurich

Zurich’s main street is the world-famous shopping avenue Bahnhofstrasse. Here are a mile and a half with exclusive and expensive stores such as Bottega Veneta in No 25, Louis Vuitton in No 30, Chanel in No 39 and Cartier in No 47 in addition to all the chain stores. Here you can look at the price tags on the Rolex watches in the show windows and heaven with the eyes that someone is willing to spend 180000 kroner to pass the time, or you can go in and buy one. The Löwenstrasse parallel street is also one of Zurich’s leading shopping streets.

Most of us will probably feel more at home in the Niederdorf area of ​​Zurich’s Old Town, where there are a number of smaller shops.

Most of these have apparently existed since the 16th century. Niederdorfstrasse and down to Oberdorfstrasse and Limmatquai by the river are mandatory for shopping tourists, but be sure to look through the many side streets too! You can suddenly stumble across a small favorite store tucked away in an alley.

What to buy?

The most typical items tourists buy with them from Switzerland are undoubtedly watches, pocket knives and chocolates. Swiss watches have become synonymous with precision and quality, and there is almost no upper price limit for the most exclusive, such as Rolex and Omega.

Admittedly, you can find cheap wristwatches in Zurich defined by AbbreviationFinder, but if the price is under 40 Swiss francs, or 200 kroner, then it’s probably Asian imports. The most affordable Swiss watches are the well-known Swatch brand, and the M-watch.

The pocket knives, or Swiss Army Knifes as they are called internationally, are also one of Switzerland’s foremost inventions and merchandise. As the name suggests, they were made quite right for the Swiss army in 1891. You can buy these high-quality knives from Riethmüller AG at Bahnhofstrasse 31, or less expensive variants at the tourist shops. And don’t bring it with you in your luggage when you get home!

Swiss chocolate is considered one of the best in the world, and is a top seller in the tourist shops, or at the biggest grocery stores Coop and Migros, which have a huge selection on their chocolate shelves. The best of Swiss chocolate is found at the traditional Confiserie Sprüngli in Bahnhofstrasse 21, which is also Zurich’s oldest bakery. Alternatively, visit Teuscher in Storchengasse 9.

Shopping Centers

On Bahnhofstrasse are two of the city’s largest department stores. The traditional Jelmoli has existed since 1833, but today is in sharp competition with the modern Globus.

However, Zurich’s most popular shopping center is probably Shop Ville under the train station, which is one of the few places that is actually open seven days a week, from 0900 to 2100.

Markets

At Bürkliplatz at the south end of Bahnhofstrasse, and at Helvetiaplatz west of the train station, flower and vegetable markets are organized every Friday between 0600 and 1100. On Saturdays there are all kinds of groceries sold at Bürkliplatz from hundreds of small stalls.

Also check out the Arrivals Hall at the train station on Wednesdays, as the gourmet market with Swiss food products is kept in focus.

Generally about shopping in Zurich

The shop opening hours are usually from 0900 to 1830 or 2000 on weekdays, and from 0900 to 1600 or 1700 on Saturdays. On Sundays, most are closed, with the exception being Shop Ville.

Don’t forget that you pay 7.6% VAT and that on all purchases over 400 Swiss francs, or about NOK 2000, you can get a refund of the VAT on departure. Not all stores have a VAT refund scheme, so look for the Tax Free Shopping badge at the entrance to buy expensive products. Remember to bring a completed and stamped form and receipt.

Zurich Eats

Food in Zurich, Switzerland

Many associate Swiss food with fondue. Fondue is usually based on cheese, but is also offered with oil or chocolate. If you want to try this out, we can recommend Adler’s Swiss Chuchi, at Hotel Adler at the intersection of Niederdorfstrasse and Rosengasse. Prices start at around NOK 150 per person. Table reservation is recommended.

But the dish most typical of exactly Zurich is undoubtedly Zürigschnätzlets. This is veal in a sauce of cream and wine. As an accessory, try the roasti, a kind of thick mashed potato pancake. Rösti is also served as a main course, but is often seasoned with cheese, onions and bacon. And of course we should not forget the Swiss cheese, or Emmenthal, which has one of the places of honor in Swiss cuisine.

If you want to try something really local, then find the way to the old classic Rheinfelder Bierhalle in Niederdorfstrasse 76, which really meets all your expectations and prejudices about the Alpine country. Swiss food and cheap beer on the menu, and in the room there are white ceiling lights and long wooden benches that you would like to share with the sideman. So arch-Swiss that you almost expect a gentleman with a Tyrolean hat and the manager’s pants to pop up on the table every now and then.

Please note that this room can be quite smoky, at the time of writing the Swiss have not yet introduced any smoking law.

Another very Swiss but slightly nicer restaurant is Zeughauskeller in Bahnhofstrasse 28a, right on Paradeplatz. In a 15th-century building, this basement restaurant has been serving traditional Swiss food for 85 years, often prepared after centuries-old recipes. Among the city’s most fashionable restaurants is Sein, located in Schützengasse 5, just off the train station. Sein is known for a creative menu and they also have a good selection for vegetarians.
Zurich is also home to Europe’s first vegetarian restaurant. Hiltl opened as early as 1898 and is located at 28 Sihlstrasse.

If you are in the daring corner and want to try something completely out of the ordinary, then choose the restaurant Blindekuh, or at good Norwegian Blindebukk. Here, blind waiters serve you food made by blind cooks, and you sit in the steamy darkness eating something you have no idea what is or what it looks like. What does the interior look like? We have no idea! The address is Mühlbachstrasse 48.

Drink in Zurich

Switzerland may not be the country you first think of when it comes to wine, but there are several wine districts in the country. Most are located in the west of Switzerland, around Geneva and Neuchatel, and in Ticino in the south. You’ve probably never heard of any of the brands because it’s not exported out of the country, but Riesling X Sylvaner is a decent and popular white wine. The red wines aren’t the whole world. Read more about Swiss wine !

The Swiss are also enthusiastic about their Rivella, a locally produced soft drink with carbonated acid, but based on milk products, thus containing lactose.

Also try the chocolate milk drink Ovomaltine, which has a tradition of more than a hundred years in Switzerland and which is ever popular.

The largest brewery in Switzerland is Feldschlösschen, which among other things produces the mild pilsner beer of the same name. At the other end of the scale you have powder barrel Samichlaus, one of the world’s strongest beer brands at 14%. It is produced (fortunately) only for Christmas, hence the name called Santa Claus. We also have the sense of the bright Pilsen Unser Bier from Basel, and Appenzeller’s Natural Pearl.

Shopping and Eating in Zadar, Croatia

Shopping and Eating in Zadar, Croatia

Zadar is one of the largest cities in the country of Croatia.

Shopping in Zadar

Zadar, the capital of Croatia described on Countryaah is a big city by Croatian scale, so this is a place where you can shop most of the time. Of course, Zadar can’t compare to metropolises like London, Milan or Paris, but on the other hand, why not go here if the main goal is shopping of the latest fashion either?

Zadar defined by AbbreviationFinder is a happy summer holiday town, and of course also touristy, so it does not surprise anyone if you find Norwegian or Swedish newspapers in a newsstand. In any case, you can buy newspapers from Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom. Take a trip to Slobodna Dalmacija kiosk on the mainland side of the bridge leading to the Old Town.

What is worth bringing along are local delicacies, such as cheese and ham. Feel free to take a look at Croatian crafts and ancient antiques as well. Very nice to buy and at good prices. Most of the attention is given to the local lace arts. The price may seem high, but these are top-class crafts, and the number of hours behind is many! If you are looking for clothing, shoes or accessories, local brands will be cheap. International brands, on the other hand, have international prices too.

Lace and crafts products in Zadar

Studio Like is found in the street Don Ive Prodana 7 and it is open from 0900 to 1500 and 1800 to 2100 every weekday. Saturdays, only the morning session is held and Sundays are closed. Here you will find traditional lace products from the surrounding area and also other craft products from other places in Croatia, eg. Dubrovnik and Lepoglava. You will also find ceramics and glass noise here.

Antiques in Zadar

For antique shopping, head to the antique market located on the street Jurja Barakovića, in the old town. Open daily between 0900 and 1400, and 1500 to 2100. Here you will find a number of products made in the Dalmatia region, and if you are able to negotiate, you may be able to make a real bargain!

Shopping food and delicacies in Zadar

Pag cheese and Posedarski pršut are something you just have to buy. Pršut ham means just as much to the people of the Dalmatia region as Parma ham means to Italians. Of course you have to buy this with you. You get dry and salted or soft and mild. Whichever type of ham is good! Best enjoyed with olive oil, tomatoes and delicious red wine! Pag is sheep’s milk cheese, and in taste and consistency it may be reminiscent of Parmesan. The cheese is expensive but worth it. Look for outlets with signs that say “Paški sir”.

The Slavonica store is located in the City Gallery shopping center (in Murvička 1 street) and is a must visit for anyone who loves meat, ham and salami. Not least, you will find home-made Slavonic specialties here!

Shopping centers in Zadar

Callegro (We have been told that this center is closed! Please feel free to provide additional information at the bottom of our page).
In the heart of Zadar you will find a modern and quite special shopping center. It is called Callegro and is located on the street Široka ulica 18. Opening hours are 0730 to 2400 week throughout the high season. The inspiration for the Arctic tour is taken from Roman times, but the packaging is hypermodern. There are also dining, cinema and much more, as well as all kinds of shops.

City Gallery
In Murvička 1 street you will find this multicenter where spectacular architecture contains lots of shops and cultural activities. City Gallery is an attraction in itself. Open from 0900 to 2100 Monday to Saturday. Open 0900 to 1400 on Sundays. We could just as well have been in London or Berlin, but without such great beaches nearby! NB On Sundays, the supermarket, cafes, the local (green) market and the cinema are open. Ordinary stores are closed.

Eating in Zadar

Food in Zadar, Croatia

There is plenty of delicious food waiting for you in Zadar and Croatia. Homemade pasta has long traditions. And different areas of Croatia have their own specialties. Such pasta is often combined with lamb. Certainly followed by cherry liqueur, which is also a local specialty in and around Zadar. This drink dates back to the 16th century.

You will also be able to eat a lot of good seafood. Croatia has the Adriatic coast from north to south. Otherwise, a lot of meat is eaten, often pork and bacon.

You do not “have to” give tips in Croatia, but it is common with up to 10% drink in restaurants if you are well satisfied with the service.

Pizza is probably the most popular dish in Croatia as in the Western world otherwise. Why not eat your pizza in Zadar’s oldest Pizza Restaurant. It’s called Tri Bunara and logically located on Trg Tri Bunara, and has kept you going since the 1920s. Open for dinner from 1900 to 2400 every day.

Local food in Zadar

Want local food is a classic in the Zadar restaurant Albin. Albin uses its own olive oil and is more than a little known for its fish soup. The address is Put Dikla 47, and opening hours are 1800 to 2400.

Lamb meat is a specialty on the Dalmatia coast You cannot be on the Dalmatia coast without eating lamb, and then preferably lamb from the island of Pag. A good choice in Zadar is Tamaris in the street Zagrebačka 5. If for some strange reason you do not like lamb, you can of course eat other local food. Positive also that the restaurant has a lot of good wine to offer. The restaurant is open for dinner from 1900 to 2400.

Nightlife in Zadar

There is plenty to do in Zadar after the restaurant visit. There are several nightclubs and discos in the city. And like many holiday resorts, the atmosphere is friendly and characterized by people of all ages using the establishments. The Old Town is popular to visit in the evening, as are nightlife options at Borik and Diklo. To enjoy the wonderful sunset in Zadar, a tip is to visit the Mango bar located about 5 km outside the city center, north of the city along the coast. The address is Krešimirova obala 12, by Diklo. The place is popular and is open from 2000 until 0400.

If you are the type of combination pub and disco then try Maya Pubin Liburnska obala 6. Here is a little Ibiza style with Shiva figure on the wall and terrace with sea view. At night, this becomes a very cool club. There are often live bands, often local artists. Open from 1900 to 0300.

The most beautiful is perhaps The Garden, started by the former drummer in the band UB40. The address is Bedemi zadarskih pobuna bb at the top of the Venetian fortress wall. The Garden hosts the festival in early July. Many claim this is the best lounge on the Adriatic coast. At least on the east coast of the Adriatic.

Shopping and Eating in Wroclaw, Poland

Shopping and Eating in Wroclaw, Poland

Wroclaw is one of the largest cities in the country of Poland.

Shopping in Wroclaw

There is a nice price level in Poland, and this benefit you bring with you as a tourist in Wroclaw defined by AbbreviationFinder. But you do not come here to shop well-known western brands. Not that you won’t find everything from Armani to Donna Karan here, but it’s not much cheaper than home.

On the other hand, it is much cheaper to find when it comes to locally produced products, whether it is food and drink, craft products, clothing and jewelry, or antiques.

The most expensive shops can be found in the streets of Odrzanska and Mikolaja. Here are boutiques you might as well find in Paris or Milan. Another such street is Kielbasnicza. By the way, this is a street those of us who like to look in cozy antique shops also go to.

Most tourists probably shop no matter more in the area around the square in the center of Old Town, and especially in the streets of ulica Swidnicka and ulica Olawska. Here it is formally packed with all kinds of shops, and the whole family will probably find something that suits their own style and wallet.

Markets in Wroclaw

Not far from the train station you will find Wroclaw’s largest market. It’s called the Zielinskiego Market and it’s located at Plac Zielinskiego, which you will find at the corner of Piaskowa and Sw. Ducha. This is an attraction you should bring even if you are not primarily in Wroclaw to shop. Here you get everything! Open all days except Sundays. Weekdays from 0700 to 1800 and Saturdays from 0700 to 1500.

You can find another market in the street ul. Piaskowa 17. It is called Hala Targowa and was once the leading market in Wroclaw. Today, the selection is still very good, although it is probably a little less popular than the Zielinskiego market. Open from 0800 to 1830 every weekday, and Saturdays from 0900 to 1500. Closed Sundays.

Shopping centers in Wroclaw

There are many great shopping centers in Wroclaw, but the fact is you basically only need to know about one of them. It’s called Magnolia Park and it’s the biggest and best. Almost as an adventure center to count. You can just take a taxi to Magnolia Park since it is located in ul. Legnicka 58, a little outside the city center.

If you do not want to leave the city center, you have Arkady Wroclawskie in the street
ul. Powstanców Slaskich 2-4, not far from the train station. Here are more than 100 well-known brand stores including H&M and Benetton in addition to restaurants and cafes. Aquariums and other children’s entertainment are also on site.

Souvenirs in Wroclaw

If you are one of those who consider postcards, plastic clocks or a cup with the Wroclaw City Hall on, as a souvenir, then know that “junkies” selling such are everywhere. But do not think that it is a Polish product you buy. Most likely, the cup is from China.

Of other more “real” souvenir products, it is primarily amber, and then in the form of jewelry, which is most popular. And amber jewelry can be really beautiful. Just make sure you bring a real one. For example, go to Galeria Art Amber in the street ul. Szewska 68 / 1a to avoid being fooled. Galeria Art Amber is well known outside Wroclaw.

Alternatively, beverages are a decent souvenir. Poland is the real homeland of Vodka, and not Russia as you might have assumed? Buy with a bottle of Chopin. Or how about a bottle of Goldwasser ? You know the liqueur with 22 to 23 carat leaf-gold in!

Eating in Wroclaw

Like many other cities, Wroclaw is heavily influenced by its history in terms of food and nightlife. With its German history you will find several beautiful beer gardens and beer halls in the city, not least Bierhalle Zwizki. This happy tourist trap can be found in the street Ratusz 24-27. Here are beers in large glasses, waitresses in colorful uniforms with big rings, and German-inspired food. And all at nice prices.

Wroclaw also has Jewish restaurants as a result of the city’s historically strong Jewish enclave. One of the best Jewish restaurants is Sarah in the street ul. Wlodkowica 5, not far from the synagogue, west of the old town. And they have more to offer than kosher food. Open from 1200 to 2200.

You can also eat international food in Wroclaw. Good restaurants with cuisine from Italy, Greece, India or Mexico are just as common here, as in well-known cities in the West. Unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately, there are also the same fast food chains here that you also know from other big cities, e.g. TGF or “Fridays” as it is now referred to as in daily speech.

So-called green restaurants are also spreading, and Vega Bar Weganski is probably the oldest vegan variety in Wroclaw with its start in 1987. The food is made from scratch, and you also get fresh fruits, vegetables, soups, nuts, herbs and you name it.

Vega Bar Weganski is open from 0800 to 2000 (2100 Fridays and Saturdays) every day. The address is Rynek 27a.

Polish food has no reputation for being the best in the world in terms of haute cuisine, but the portions are large, the drink strong and the influence of Germany and Austria palpable. It is certainly pleasant to spend an evening at a Polish restaurant, and the food is better than you think.

Some select restaurants in Wroclaw

Food in Wroclaw, Poland

The restaurant Cesarsko-Królewska in the street Rynek 19 tries to recreate the grandeur of the past in cities like Vienna. The restaurant has several magnificent dining rooms, literally, and the menu consists of delicious game dishes as well as other classic European cuisine. You will also have the opportunity to taste delicious vodka here.

Capri
This Italian trattoria offers pasta and other well-known Italian dishes, and is just as good as a restaurant in Italy. Opening hours are from 1200 to 2400. The address is ul. Wiezienna 21 in the old town.

Gallo Nero
Take the trip to Pl. Teatralna 4, in the basement of Teatr Lalek, you will find (yet another) Italian restaurant that gets good feedback. Previously, this was the very special restaurant Restauracja Teatralna where the world was literally turned upside down.

There is still something unique about eating in these premises. Both exclusive and popular at once.

Nightlife in Wroclaw

In Poland, it is often the case that the bars only close when the last customer leaves the scene, and it is no different in Wroclaw. At least around the market square in the old town.

You will also find good night spots west of the main square, ie in ul. Ruska and ul. Wlodkowica. The former street is the youth’s favorite with many clubs and bars. Many travelers and residents alike make the trip to the old train station at Plac Orlat Lwowskich.

Itinerary Tips!

What should we do, we who enjoyed the very cozy music bar / restaurant Ragtime? Well we suggest the bar right next door, more specifically at Pl. Solny 11. The place is called Cocktail bar by Incognito and it is a good old fashioned cocktail bar which offers first class drinks in a safe and relaxed environment. What more could one want?

Shopping and Eating in Warsaw, Poland

Shopping and Eating in Warsaw, Poland

Warsaw is one of the largest cities in the country of Poland.

Shopping in Warsaw

Poland, after its membership in the EU, has noticed that prices have increased, but you still get very good value for money in Warsaw, the capital of Poland described on Countryaah. Imported goods are of course not particularly cheaper than at home, but all of the locally produced goods have generally very reasonable prices.

Like almost everywhere else in Eastern Europe, amber jewelry and crystal products are the most common souvenirs that tourists come home with. You will find these in hundreds of street stalls virtually everywhere in Warsaw defined by AbbreviationFinder.

The main shopping streets are Nowy Swiat and the Chmielna cross street, where you will find everything from shoes, music, clothes and books.

Shopping malls and outdoor markets in Warsaw

There are plenty of great shopping centers and department stores in Warsaw. The largest and most central is the Galeria Center in Marszalkowska in the center. Further north, in Muranow, is the equally large Arcadia in Jana Pawla II 82, and not far away in Okopowa 58/72 is the Klif shopping center.

Those who thrive in markets have something to look forward to when they come to Warsaw. And this despite the huge “Russian market” that has long been located at the Dziesieciolecia Stadium in Praga is now gone.

This once was an endless maze of stalls selling obscure items such as pirated CDs, DVDs, clothing, shoes, vodka, software, fishing rods, cosmetics, cigarettes and books, and also Russian uniforms, statues of Hitler, Iron Cross and infrared binoculars, has been removed by the authority. If you asked the right seller, you could probably have bought plutonium, panda bears, Munch paintings, crocodiles or a bazooka here as well. Where all these sellers have now taken the road is the question everyone asks.

Kolo Bazar in Warsaw

Kolo Bazar is a great option for those who love to go in search of “fleas” and rarities. With opening hours from 0600 to 1800 every weekday and to 1600 Saturdays and Sundays this is an accessible market where you can buy all sorts of weird products. Here, of course, you do not pay the retail price, but negotiate as best you can. The address is ul. Obozowa 99.

Tax Free Shopping in Warsaw

Do not forget that you pay VAT and that on all purchases over 200 zloty you can get refunded VAT on departure. Not all stores have a VAT refund scheme, so look for the Tax Free Shopping badge at the entrance to buy expensive products. Remember to bring a completed and stamped form and receipt.

Eating in Warsaw

Food in Warsaw, Poland

Few of us have any exact associations with the term “Polish food”, but if you have been to the Czech Republic, you have some idea of ​​what awaits you. Like the rest of Eastern Europe, traditional Polish food is based on ingredients such as pork, bacon, sausages, sauerkraut potatoes, and thick, brown sauces. In addition to all the soups. The food is usually served in large, saturating portions.

An archetypal Polish dinner will usually consist of the appetizer smalec (fried kebab with bread) or the soup Zurek (a sour rye soup with potatoes and sausage) followed by the unofficial national dish bigos. This is a hunter’s garden consisting of meat, onions and sauerkraut that has stood and “compensated” for a few days, and it is probably only the country’s own residents who supply themselves twice. For dessert, the cheesecake is often served sernik. Everything is washed down with bare vodka or beer. Na zdrowie!

Warsaw is far from the coastline, so fish and other seafood are not as common here as it is further north in the country, even though the Vistula River flows through the center.

Some select restaurants in Warsaw

You will find many restaurants in the center of Warsaw serving traditional Polish cuisine, such as the Honoratka Cafe in Miodowa 14. This is one of the city’s oldest eateries, and Frederic Chopin, who lived in Warsaw for 20 years, was a regular guest here. The venue is in a medieval cellar, and the menu matches, with dishes such as wild boar in juniper sauce with mead to drink. Afterwards you have a short distance to the many nightlife in the Old Town.

Taxis in Warsaw have a starting price of 6 zloty, and then about 10 kroner per kilometer in the evening / night time, so you are not ruined by spending a taxi home to the hotel afterwards.

Also Restaurant Przy Zamku serves Polish cuisine and is very popular with tourists, not least because of its location vis a vis the castle. The address is plac Zamkowy 15/19.

For a coffee or lunch, try the semi-legendary Blikle Cafe on Nowy Swiat 33.

If you want to try something more fun, we can suggest Kompania Piwna in Podwale 25, just west of the Barbican. This is actually a large beer hall, but they serve large dining areas with thick beer additives, and there is a generally cheerful atmosphere here and in the garden outside. The place is suitable for both families and couples. Afterwards you have a short way down to the Old Town nightlife.

If you prefer to eat Japanese, Indian, French, Italian, Mexican, Brazilian or Chinese, there are plenty of options for that as well.

Nightlife in Warsaw

Vodka can be considered the national drink in Poland, and the Poles claim that it was they who invented it. Here, the vodka should be drunk bar in small glasses, and preferably swallowed in one sip. However, there is no tradition of wine in Poland, and no wines are produced here either. Wine is of course available at restaurants and shops, and the Hungarian wines are considerably less expensive than Western European ones.

Beer, on the other hand, drinks a lot of poles, but beer is not necessarily served cold as with us. The most popular are the bright pillar brands Zywiec, Okocim and Duitsie. Try the microbrewery at Bierhalle in Nowy Swiat 2. A pint usually costs about 25 kroner at a pub or cafe.

Shopping and Eating in Vilnius, Lithuania

Shopping and Eating in Vilnius, Lithuania

Vilnius is one of the largest cities in the country of Lithuania.

Shopping in Vilnius

You do not go to Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania described on Countryaah primarily for shopping. Granted, the prices are low, but the selection is not very different than in Norway when it comes to shoes and clothes.

But you will still have fun by visiting some of the many craft and souvenir shops. The most typical souvenir you can take home from Vilnius is undoubtedly amber jewelry. You will find plenty of market stalls selling this along the Pilies Gatve pedestrian street in the Old Town, and in Vilnius’ oldest street, Ausros Vartu Gatve. Here you can also buy crafts such as religious statues, wooden dolls and toys, woven baskets and the classic eggs with one grandmother (or Russian president) after another inside each other.

In many places you can also come across objects from the Soviet era, so if you wanted a Red Army hat, Soviet banknotes and coins, framed Stalin pictures or a small hammer-and-sickle to the fireplace shelf, you have come to the right city.

Gedimino Prospectus – the shopping street in Vilnius

The main shopping street in Vilnius is without doubt the new and beautiful Gedimino Prospectus. Here you will find most fashionable clothing chains such as Zara and Marks & Spencer.

Markets in Vilnius

You can also have great fun by visiting the morning market in Kalvarijos, in the district of Snipiskes north of Neris. Here it is high tempo and an equally high noise level, while vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and flowers are sold over hundreds of dishes.

Shopping centers in Vilnius

If you prefer shopping centers, you have the Europa Tower in Snipiskees just north of Neris and the Old Town, and a few kilometers further north is the Baltic’s largest shopping and entertainment center, the Acropolis, where you will also find cinemas, bowling alley and ice skating rink. The designer shops selling Armani, Dior and Escada can be found in front of Vilnius City Hall.

In general about shopping in Vilnius

Most shops in Vilnius defined by AbbreviationFinder are open from 8am. 1000 to 1800 on weekdays, and to 1500 on Saturdays. Sundays are mostly closed everywhere, except for the most persistent souvenir shops. Don’t forget to pay VAT, and on all purchases over 200 litas, or approx. 500 NOK, you can get a refund of the VAT on departure. Not every business practices this scheme, so look for the Tax Free Shopping badge at the entrance if you are going to buy some more expensive items and bring a completed and stamped form and receipt.

Eating in Vilnius

Food in Vilnius, Lithuania

Like the rest of Eastern Europe, traditional food in Lithuania is characterized by meat and potatoes, cabbage and fatty, brown sauces. It should be honestly admitted that Vilnius’ restaurants are not world class in terms of food or service. But the quality is decent enough, while your wallet comes out relatively well from the meeting, even at the best restaurants in town.

A main course at a good restaurant is around a hundred pieces. As tourism grows, ethnic restaurants have of course emerged, so you have plenty of options if you prefer to eat Indian, Argentine, Chinese, Turkish or Swedish.

If you intend to take a bar-to-bar lap in Vilnius, at least you will not wear out your shoe soles until it is time to go home. The dining places are close to the Old Town, and you do not have to go far, no matter where in the city you are when the thirst begins. Beer is the main drink in Lithuania, with vodka notched in the heel.

The beer is often served with bars of deep-fried garlic bread, while the vodka is served bar. Wine has no tradition in Lithuania. Of course, you can buy wine at most restaurants and bars, but it is always imported and relatively expensive compared to the options.

Of the restaurants in Vilnius, the itinerary of personal experience can recommend these:

Sue’s Indian Raja
Odminiu 3.
This Indian restaurant with an outdoor table by the cathedral square has a sister restaurant in Riga that was recently named one of Europe’s best.

Lokys
Stikliu str 8.
In a basement room in the Jewish quarters is this atmospheric medieval restaurant where you can choose boats, beaver, wild boar and bear from the menu. The less ambitious can choose fish or bird. Entrance via a steep and very narrow stone staircase.

El Gaucho Sano
Pilies gatve 10.
In the Old Town’s main street, this Argentine restaurant is at the heart of the Atrium Hotel room. The specialty is tender, juicy steaks, served on planks with lots of accessories.