Vienna, Austria Philharmonic
Vienna Philharmonic, independent orchestra of international standing founded in1842 on the initiative of O. Nicolais.
Short story: From Nicolai, who directed the orchestra until 1847, important chief conductors of the Vienna Philharmonic were among others. H. Richter (1875–98), G. Mahler (1898–1901), F. von Weingartner (1908–27), W. Furtwängler (1927–30) and C. Krauss (1930–33). Since then only (permanent) guest conductors have worked, including B. Walter, H. Knappertsbusch, A. Toscanini, O. Klemperer, K. Böhm, H. von Karajan, L. Bernstein, C. Abbado, S. Ozawa and C. Thielemann; The Vienna Philharmonic has also been working closely with J. Levine, A. Previn and R. Muti for many years.
Research on the history of the Vienna Philharmonic during the Nazi era after the Anschluss of Austria (1938; Anschluss movement) caused an international stir in 2013. revealed almost 50% membership of the orchestra musicians in the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party).
Repertoire and work: In addition to concert activities in Vienna and on international tours, there is also service in the Vienna State Opera and, since 1925, participation in the Salzburg Festival.
The traditional New Year’s concerts of the orchestra, which are broadcast by numerous international TV stations and are dedicated to the works of the Strauss family (Johann Strauss father, Johann Strauss son, Josef Strauss, E. Strauss) and their contemporaries are famous. In addition, the repertoire of the Vienna Philharmonic consists primarily of the music of the Viennese Classic (Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven) and the Romantic period, as well as world premieres of contemporary works, e. B. by J. Brahms, A. Bruckner, R. Strauss, G. Mahler, E. W. Korngold, B. Bartók, L. Berio, W. Rihm and P. Ruzicka.
The orchestra’s briefings include: the Küchl Quartet (founded 1973, also known as the Wiener Musikvereinquartett), the Wiener Streichquartett (founded 1964), the Wiener Kammerensemble (founded 1970), the Arista Trio (founded 1999), the Schulhoff Quartet and the Concordia Quartet (both founded 2001).
Wiener Symphoniker, orchestra founded in 1900 as the Wiener Concertverein by Ferdinand Löwe (* 1865, † 1925), which he directed until 1925; Acting chief conductor since 2014 is the Swiss Philippe Jordan (* 1974). The briefings are the baroque ensemble of the Vienna Symphony Orchestra (founded in 1989) and the wind soloists of the Vienna Symphony Orchestra who perform at special concerts.
Short story: The orchestra tried to attract new audiences through popular concerts (until 1917) and workers’ symphony concerts (1919–33, directed by A. Webern, among others). In 1914 it merged with the Vienna Tonkünstler Orchestra to form the Vienna Symphony Orchestra and took on its current name in 1933. Important chief conductors were among others. W. Furtwängler (1927–30), O. Kabasta (1934–38), H. Swarowsky (1945–47), H. von Karajan (1950–60), W. Sawallisch (1960–70, since then honorary conductor), J Krips (1970-73), C. M. Giulini (1973-76), G. N. Roschdestwenski (1980-82), G. Prêtre (1986–91, since then honorary conductor), R. Frühbeck de Burgos (1991–96), W. Fedosejew (1997–2004) and F. Luisi (2005–14); in addition, renowned guest conductors such as B. Walter, L. Bernstein, L. Maazel, N. Harnoncourt and C. Abbado shaped the orchestra.
Repertoire: The repertoire of the Wiener Symphoniker is broadly diversified from the baroque to the (first) performance of contemporary works, among others. by A. Bruckner, R. Strauss, M. Ravel, K. A. Hartmann, B. Blacher, G. von Eine, A. Schönberg, F. Schmidt and W. Rihm. They also work as an opera orchestra in the Theater an der Wien and, since 1946, at the Bregenz Festival.
Viennese porcelain, porcelain manufactured in the manufactory founded in Vienna in 1718. The first period of this European manufacture, the oldest after Meissen, was under the direction of Claudius Innozenz du Paquier (* around 1679, † 1751)and spanned the years between 1717 and 1744. a. Chinoiserie decors and the influence of Meissen play an important role. In 1744 the state took over the manufacture, which in addition to Servicen v. a. made figurative rococoplasty. From 1784, under the direction of the textile manufacturer Konrad Sörgel von Sorgenthal († 1805), it flourished again with vessels, dishes and figures in the classical and later in the Biedermeier style. 1784–1807 was A. Grassi Master model of the Viennese porcelain manufactory. The decline began after 1820, the manufacture was closed in 1864, and in 1923 it was reestablished as an AG in Augarten Castle (since 1984 “Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur Augarten Gesellschaft m. B. H.”).
Vor | arlberg [f-], the westernmost federal state of Austria, borders Germany in the north, Tyrol in the east, Switzerland and Liechtenstein in the south and west, 2 601 km 2, (2018) 391 700 residents; The capital is Bregenz, but Dornbirn and Feldkirch are more populous.
In the northwest, Vorarlberg has a share of Lake Constance of 60 km 2. The state is divided into four political districts with district authorities and 96 municipalities (including five municipalities and eleven market municipalities). Vorarlberg has a special position in almost all areas. This is not least due to its western border location and the centuries-long geographical isolation from the rest of Austria.
According to the state constitution of 1999 (amended several times), the state parliament, consisting of 36 members and elected for a period of 5 years, exercises state legislation; he elects the state government headed by the governor and to which the governor (deputy governor) and another 5 members belong. The constitution provides for plebiscites and referendums.
Flag and coat of arms: The national flag was adopted in 1946 and takes on the colors of the coat of arms. It is horizontally striped red over white and bears the coat of arms in the middle as the state service flag. – The coat of arms has been used since 1923. It shows a red church flag on three red rings in the silver shield, with three bibs with black fringes. The flag is crossed by two black bars in the upper part and three black bars in the bibs. The state coat of arms is the coat of arms of the Counts of Montfort, which has been documented since 1181 and formerly ruled most of the country.
Vienna Basin, in a broader sense the landscape on both sides of the Danube in northeastern Austria, a geological subsidence area between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathian Mountains; bounded in the west by the eastern edge of the Alps (including the Vienna Woods), in the south by the Rosaliengebirge, in the east by the Leithagebirge and the Hainburg mountains as well as by the Little Carpathians and the hilly region of the Weinviertel; in the northeast the Vienna Basin merges into the Marchauen. In a narrower sense, the Vienna Basin is understood to mean the areas south of the Danube, including the Steinfeld in the southern tip, the v. a. be used for arable farming. The border between the Vienna Woods in the west and the Vienna Basin is known as the Thermenlinie (the most famous bathing resorts are Baden and Bad Vöslau) (viticulture and fruit growing). To the north of the Danube, the Vienna Basin encompasses the Marchfeld. The fertile peripheral hill country has numerous vineyards. The broad Danube lowland is still largely occupied by alluvial forests. The natural resources are clays (numerous brickworks) and limestone as a building block (on the eastern edge of the Alps), lignite near Pifte in the south and v. a. Natural gas and oil north-east of Vienna (around Zwerndorf). The Vienna Basin is one of the most important industrial and residential areas in Austria with the ribbon-like series of cities running along the edge of the Alps from Vienna to Wiener Neustadt.