Tag: Zambia

Zambia History

Zambia History

From quite remote times Bantu migrations moved southwards in successive waves, resulting in complicated processes of mixing and an unusual diversity of tribes and languages ​​ (ca. 80). The most consistent and reliable invasions came in the century. XVII from the southern regions of the Congo basin, and in the century. XVIII from East Africa. They were followed, at the beginning of the century. XIX, Arab invasions from the north, and Ngoni from the south. The Kalolos, coming from Basutoland, also settled in Barotseland, ruled by the Lozi people. The first Europeans to reach the country were, in 1789, the Portuguese Lacerda and, in the following century (1851-73) D. Livingstone. The British penetration to the North began mainly through the work of C. Rhodes, which intended to control – through the British South Africa Company (BSAC) established in 1889 and equipped with a Royal Charter – the copper deposits of those regions. Rhodes came into contact in 1890 with local leaders by negotiating various agreements intended to place them under the protection of the Company and therefore of England. The most important treaties were signed with Lewanika, king of the lozi of the upper Zambezi (1890, 1900). Towards other peoples, such as the bemba to the S of Tanganyika and the Ngoni to the E of the Luangwa River, the British imposed themselves with arms. In 1911 the authority of the Company was by now recognized throughout the territory. As a result of increasing pressure from European settlers, in 1924 the powers of the BSAC were transferred to the Colonial Office, which established a Legislative Council, from which Africans were excluded. The intense exploitation of mineral resources (discovered in 1931), the rapid industrial development, the massive use of African labor at pure subsistence wages led to the formation of worker and political associations among Africans, and the emergence of authoritative nationalist and trade unionist leaders. After the Second World War, the British Labor government authorized the establishment of trade unions and in 1948 the Northern Rhodesia Congress was born from the aforementioned associations, the first African party in the area. Meanwhile the European subjects were demanding the cessation of the colonial government and the annexation to Southern Rhodesia. In 1953 the British government, again led by Labor, created a federation (Central African Federation) between Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Nyasaland (Malawi). According to a2zcamerablog, Zambia is a country located in Africa.

Around 1958 a radical African movement was formed, led by K. Kaunda, which gave birth to the United National Independence Party (UNIP). It was following the energetic political action of UNIP that the British government adopted in 1962 the first constitutional reforms for the launch of the territory to independence, which was proclaimed on October 24, 1964. Kaunda became the head of the new state, which took the name of Zambia. Starting in 1972, UNIP became the only legally recognized party in the country. The following year, following the entry into force of a new Constitution, Kaunda was re-elected head of state (reconfirmed in 1978, 1983 and 1988). On the inter-African level, the Kaunda government was characterized by a firm anti-colonial and anti-racist attitude. Inside, however, the discontent against Kaunda grew stronger and stronger, with strikes and protests against the austerity policy imposed by the government to deal with the serious economic situation in the country. Induced by this widespread discontent and by the change in the international political climate, the head of state in 1990 adopted constitutional amendments aimed at introducing multi-partyism (December), also favoring later, through an in-depth confrontation with the opposition, the promulgation of a new Constitution (2 August 1991), with which they made possible presidential elections, which took place the following October under international control. The result of the popular vote decreed the end of Kaunda’s power and awarded the victory to the opposition candidate, following October under international control. The result of the popular vote decreed the end of Kaunda’s power and awarded the victory to the opposition candidate, following October under international control. The result of the popular vote decreed the end of Kaunda’s power and awarded the victory to the opposition candidate, F. Chiluba, leader of the Movement for Multi-Party and Democracy (MMD), who took office on November 2, 1991. The fragile new structures of Zambia were subjected in the following years to political tensions and subversive attempts: the 1996 elections took place despite the boycott carried out by the opposition and F. Chiluba was reconfirmed as head of state. In December 2001, new elections for the renewal of Parliament and for the designation of the President of the Republic saw L. Mwanawasa prevail. (MMD), who became the third president of Zambia, against the UNIP candidate, but also for these consultations the accusations of fraud and irregularities by the opposition were repeated, to which was added the condemnation of international observers. Despite this, the Supreme Court validated the election results. Mwanawasa, who in his first term led the country through a slow process of democratization and condemnation of the Kaunda regime, was reconfirmed in the 2006 presidential elections and in the subsequent legislative elections the MMD again won the majority of seats. In August 2008, President Mwanawasa died of a heart attack and was succeeded by Rupiah Banda (MMD). In November, presidential elections were held which saw Banda himself and Michael Sata as challengers; the incumbent president was reconfirmed, creating strong protests from the opposition candidate. In the 2011 elections Sata was elected president, until his death in October 2014. Guy Scott became president ad interim, while in 2015 Edgar Lungu was elected.

Zambia History