Tag: Turkey

Turkey Education and Culture

Turkey Education and Culture

The modern schooling system started by Mustafa Kemal and continued by his successors, is based on the European model. The arts represent themes of the Turkish tradition while showing Western influence. Radio and television have also reached rural areas, posing a threat to indigenous culture.


At the time of the establishment of the republic, more than 90% of the population was illiterate; the new government introduced important educational reforms and the first Constitution established that elementary education was compulsory for all Turks and free in state schools. In 2005 the literacy rate was 87.6% of adults. Education is compulsory between the ages of 9 and 14.

In the year 2000, according to educationvv, 8,014,733 students were enrolled in 49,599 primary schools. The enrollment rate in secondary education was 79% and 28% in higher education.
Access to Turkish universities is extremely difficult; The main institutions include the University of Istanbul (1453), the Aegean University (1955) in Izmir, the University of Ankara (1946), and the Technical University of the Near East (1956), also in Ankara.

Cultural tradition

The Turkish poet Nazim Hikmet evolved from traditional poetry to new forms, with greater freedom in images and rhythmic devices.

The transition from Islamic cultural traditions during the Ottoman Empire (see Islamic Art and Architecture), towards a more western trend, has been gradually gaining relevance in the country. Today’s Turkish painters strive to find their own art form, free from Western influences. The sculpture is less developed and the public monuments are, in essence, heroic representations of Mustafa Kemal and warlike commemorations of the Turkish War of Independence.

Popular music is the source of inspiration for important symphonic works (see Music of Islamic countries).
The most recent Turkish poetry survives thanks to the epic poetry of the Manas, poems that have been passed from generation to generation through the years. The early mystical poetry written by Yunus Emre and other authors in the 14th century gave way to a poetic heritage called ‘couch poetry’; the most popular was that recited by minstrels, a tradition that has continued to this day. Most critics point to Kemal Tahit as the most important modern novelist. Other prominent authors are Yasar Kemal and the poet Nazim Hikmet.

Cultural institutions

In this intricate maze of vaulted pavilions, which began construction in 1459 and became a museum in 1924, collections of objects that belonged to Ottoman sultans are gathered.
Turkey has opera houses in Istanbul and Ankara, with an Academy of Fine Arts in Istanbul, three conservatories and a national folk music ensemble, in addition to several cultural institutions. Christian churches have been turned into mosques and those built by the famous architect Mimar Sinan are located in Istanbul, Edirne, Bursa and other cities.

The former palace of the Sultan, is today the Topkapi Museum, which brings together collections of objects that belonged to Ottoman sultans. The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, located in Ankara, has among other valuable objects, with Hittite and Phrygian relics. Among the main libraries are the National Library in Ankara and the Beyazit State Library in Istanbul.


Turkey has 588 daily newspapers, most of which are of low circulation; those with the largest circulation are the Cumhuriyet, the Sabah, the Hürriyet, the Milliyet and the Türkiye, all of them published in Istanbul. The country also has numerous weekly and monthly publications (688 in 2000). The government controls four national radio broadcasts and five television channels, although there are also several private radio and television networks. There are about 37 million radio sets and 30 million television receivers. The country has 263 telephones and 52 computer equipment in use for every thousand residents.

Main cities

Located on the Bosphorus Strait, Istanbul is the main port and largest city in Turkey. The walls seen here are remnants of the original city built in 324 AD by Emperor Constantine I.
According to the 2007 census, the population of the main cities was 11,174,257 residents in Istanbul, 3,428,000 residents in the capital Ankara, 2,409,000 in Izmir or Izmir, 395,388 in Adana and, finally, 459,877 in Bursa. Other major Turkish cities are: Kars, Samsun, Mersin, Van, Edirne (former Adrianápolis), Elâzığ, Kırıkkale, Iskenderun, Isparta, Konya, Malatya, Diyarbakır, Gaziantep, Maras, Adapazarı, Kayseri, Erzurum, Antioch and Antalya.

Official and spoken languages

The official language is the Turkish language. Furthermore, between 10 and 15% of the population speak their mother tongue, generally Kurdish or Arabic.


The Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul was built in 1550. The architect Sinan based his design on Byzantine churches, especially Hagia Sophia. The large central dome, on a square structure, opens onto small vaulted spaces with half domes as buttresses. The four pointed minarets, with balconies, are characteristic of the architectural style of late Islamic mosques.
Islam ceased to be the official religion in 1928. However, 99% of the population is Muslim, mainly Sunni, while the Shiites are in the southeast. Christians make up less than 0.1% of the total population. The Jewish community has about 20,000 members.

Turkey Education and Culture

Turkey Politics and Law

Turkey Politics and Law


According to the 1982 constitution, Turkey is a parliamentary republic. It is committed to the separation of powers as well as fundamental rights and obligations. In a referendum in 2017, however, according to the electoral commission, a narrow majority of voters voted for a far-reaching constitutional amendment that transformed the system of parliamentary democracy into a presidential system. Since the 2018 election, the President has been head of state and head of government at the same time and has extensive powers. He is directly elected for a term of five years (re-election possible once). If the parliament decides on new elections in the second legislative period of the president, the incumbent may run for office again, resulting in a term of office of up to 14 years. According to carswers, the office of Prime Minister is no longer applicable. The president, who is allowed to belong to a party, is the commander-in-chief of the military, appoints a number of vice-presidents to be determined by him, the members of the cabinet and high-ranking officials, all of whom he can dismiss at any time. He can issue decrees with the force of law and introduce the draft budget to parliament. The parliament with a five-year legislative period has 600 instead of the previous 550 members (active and passive voting rights from the age of 18) and is elected in the same election as the president. The latter can dissolve it and call new elections without certain conditions, but at the same time makes himself available for election. Control of the executive by parliament is hardly possible any more. but at the same time puts himself up for election. Control of the executive by parliament is hardly possible any more. but at the same time puts himself up for election. Control of the executive by parliament is hardly possible any more.


Turkey is strongly centralized. There are 81 provinces (İl), 30 of which are metropolitan regions (Büyükşehir Belediyesi), which are divided into districts (İlçe) and further into municipalities (Bucak). Each province has an elected provincial assembly. The prefects (Vali, also: Gouverneur) appointed by the interior minister at the top act as representatives of the central government as well as the respective provinces as local authorities. At the head of the district administration is the District Administrator (Kaymakam), also appointed by the Minister of the Interior. Mayors (Belediye) in the parishes and village chiefs (Muhtar) in the villages are elected by the people.

Administrative division of Turkey

Administrative structure (2018)
Province (capital) 1) Area (in km 2) Population (in 1,000) Residents (per km2)
Adana 13 915 2,220.1 160
Adıyaman 7 033 624.5 89
Afyon 14 314 725.5 51
Ağrı 11 470 539.6 47
Aksaray 7 570 412.1 54
Amasya 5 690 337.5 59
Ankara 24 521 5,503.9 224
Antalya 20 723 2,426.3 117
Ardahan 4 842 98.9 20th
Artvin 7 367 174.0 24
Aydın 7 851 1,097.7 140
Balikesir 14 299 1,226.5 86
Bartın 2,080 198.9 96
Batman 4,659 599.1 129
Bayburt 3 739 82.2 22nd
Bilecik 4 302 223.4 52
Bing oil 8 253 281.2 34
Bitlis 7 021 349.4 50
Bolu 8 320 311.8 37
Burdur 6 840 269.9 39
Bursa 10 422 2,994.5 287
Çanakkale 9 933 540.6 54
Çankırı 7 490 216.3 29
Çorum 12 792 536.5 42
Denizli 11 692 1,027.8 88
Diyarbakır 15 058 1,732.4 115
Düzce 2 567 387.8 151
Edirne 6 074 411.5 68
Elâzığ 8 455 595.6 70
Erzıncan 11 619 236.0 20th
Erzurum 25 323 767.8 30th
Eskişehir 13 842 871.2 63
Gaziantep 6 819 2,028.5 298
Giresun 6 832 453.9 66
Gümüşhane 6 437 162.7 25th
Hakkari 7 179 286.5 40
Hatay (Antakya) 5,828 1,609.8 276
İçel (Mersin) 15 485 1,814.4 117
Iğdır 3,588 197.4 55
Isparta 8 276 441.4 53
Istanbul 5 196 15 067.7 2 900
İzmir 12 012 4,320.5 360
Kahramanmaraş 14 346 1,144.8 80
Karabuk 4 109 248.0 60
Karaman 8 845 251.9 28
Kars 10 127 288.9 28
Kastamonu 13 153 383.4 29
Kayseri 17 043 1,389.6 81
Kilis 1 428 142.5 100
Kırıkkale 4,534 286.6 63
Kırklareli 6 278 360.8 57
Kırşehir 6 352 241.8 38
Kocaeli (İzmit) 3 612 1 906.4 528
Konya 38 873 2 205.6 57
Kutahya 11 977 577.9 48
Malatya 11 776 797.0 68
Manisa 13 096 1,429.6 109
Mardin 8 806 829.2 94
Muğla 12 851 967.5 75
Must 8 059 408.0 51
Nevşehir 5 379 298.3 55
Niğde 7 352 364.7 50
Ordu 5,952 771.9 130
Osmaniye 3 124 534.4 171
Rize 3,922 348.6 89
Sakarya (Adapazari) 4 838 1,010.7 209
Samsun 9 083 1,335.7 147
Şanlıurfa 18 765 2,035.8 108
Siirt 5,473 331.6 61
Sinop 5,792 219.7 38
Şırnak 7 152 524.2 73
Sivas 28 549 646.6 23
Tekirdağ 6 313 1,029.9 163
Tokat 9 958 612.6 61
Trabzon 4,664 807.9 173
Tunceli 7 432 88.2 12th
Usak 5,341 367.5 69
Van 19 299 1,123.8 58
Yalova 847 262.2 310
Yozgat 14 072 424.9 30th
Zonguldak 3 304 599.7 182
1) The names of the province and the capital are identical, unless otherwise stated.


The judiciary is overseen by the Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors. The council consists of 13 members (6 appointed by the President, 7 elected by Parliament).

The structure of the ordinary jurisdiction has been in three stages since 2005. Courts of first instance are peace and district courts for civil and criminal matters as well as special courts such as B. Commercial, consumer, labor and family courts. Military jurisdiction was repealed with the constitutional reform that came into force in 2018. The newly established court of second instance will act as the court of appeal for all ordinary courts of first instance. The third and final instance is the Court of Cassation (Yargitay) in Ankara. The factual jurisdiction of the courts is in principle determined according to the value of the subject of the dispute. In each judicial district consisting of several provinces there is also an administrative and a tax court,

The legal system is characterized by two large reception processes. The first served to underpin the social and structural change from the Ottoman Empire to a western-oriented parliamentary republic whose main characteristics were secularismand the rule of law are. This process was initiated with the first constitution of the Turkish Republic (1924) and the adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the first two books of the Swiss Code of Obligations, the Swiss Debt Enforcement and Bankruptcy Act, the Civil Procedure Code of the Canton of Neuchâtel, the Italian Criminal Code and the German Code of Criminal Procedure in the years 1926 to 1929. A commercial code composed of elements from French, Belgian, Italian and German law came into force in 1926 and a maritime trade code composed largely of German law in 1929 (both merged and revised in the new commercial code of 1956).

The second reception process was caused by Turkey’s rapprochement with the EU. With the establishment of the Customs Union in 1996, Turkey had to revise or enact new laws, particularly in the area of ​​commercial law. But the major codes have also all been revised: the Civil Code (2002), the Code of Civil Procedure (2004), the Code of Criminal Procedure (2005) and the Criminal Code (2005). Most of the Commercial Code and the Code of Obligations were also revised. The death penalty has been abolished since 2006.

Turkey Politics

Shopping and Eating in Istanbul, Turkey

Shopping and Eating in Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul is one of the largest cities in the country of Turkey.

Shopping in Istanbul

In Istanbul defined by AbbreviationFinder you can get absolutely anything, and the vast majority of goods are considerably cheaper than in Norway, especially since the Turkish Lira has been devalued sharply since 2001. However, lately Turkey has worked a lot on its currency and economic stability. You get the most value for money if you buy clothes, textiles and leather goods.

Many tourists have been invited to an exceptionally pleasant and compelling carpet shop and come home with exclusive, handmade rugs worth thousands, without ever having any plans to buy a blanket during the holidays.

Turkish raki, an anise liquor à la Greek ouzo, is a cheap and popular souvenir. If you are planning to bring alcohol or tobacco home from your holiday, we can state that it is considerably cheaper to buy in the city center than in the airport’s duty free shops.

The most obvious place to go shopping, and where you can have fun at the same time, is of course the Grand Bazaar [see picture first in article]. Bring cash and good mood! Bargain for expensive items that interest you, but you won’t be particularly popular if you bargain for fun on items you don’t plan to buy.

In Beyoglu lies the long pedestrian street Istiklal Caddesi. There you will find everything from more exclusive, western fashion boutiques to cheap souvenir stalls.

If you are going to buy clothes, you will find most major international and Turkish brands in their own stores in Nisantasi, which you reach by Taksim subway. The city’s largest shopping center, Akmerkz, is located in Levent, but it is not distinctly Turkish.

The vast majority of shops are open at least twelve hours a day, starting at 10 am. 0800 or 0900 in the morning until 7 p.m. 2000 or 2100 in the evening. Some shop owners close one hour in the afternoon to pray at the mosque.

Eating and drinking in Istanbul

Food in Istanbul, Turkey

Turkish cuisine is considered one of the best in the world, so take the opportunity to visit a good restaurant every day. For what you pay, you will hardly get an appetizer at a restaurant of similar standard in Norway.

Dinners usually consist of an appetizer (meze), a tasty, small appetizer that can consist of anything. The country’s national law is undoubtedly kebab (with print on the last syllable) in hundreds of combinations, such as döner, cöp sis and icebergs or köfte (meatballs).

The desserts are very sweet, like baklava in honey, ice cream or donuts with syrup and cream. And don’t forget, of course, raki, the Turkish anise liquor. It can be enjoyed after every meal.

Istanbul’s location makes seafood more common here than in the rest of the country. You will find many excellent fish restaurants, especially along the seafront promenades in Ortaköy.

You will always be offered a small cup of strong, sweet tea, which the Turks drink at all times of the day. Coffee is not that prevalent except in tourist places. Here it is often served very sweet and in small cups.

Some selected restaurants in Istanbul

One of the better and oldest restaurants in town is the family-run Ottoman restaurant Haci Abdullah. It has been located in Sakizagaci Caddesi 17 in Beyoglu for over 100 years and has been decorated since the turn of the last century. Please note that alcohol is not served.

The restaurants in the old town are usually much more ordinary and touristy than on the Taksim side, but try Konyali inside the Topkapi Palace, which has both a glass pavilion and a terrace with glorious views towards the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus Strait.

Rami is an Ottoman, three-storey restaurant in Sultanahmet with a very popular rooftop terrace where dinner guests overlook the Blue Mosque. Rami has an extensive menu and low prices. We recommend booking a table.

Shopping and Eating in Antalya, Turkey

Shopping and Eating in Antalya, Turkey

Antalya is one of the largest cities in the country of Turkey.

Shopping in Antalya

You can, of course, shop more than hand knotted rugs in Turkey. But Turkish rugs are really great. So if you manage to avoid walking in one of several tourist traps, then you can make a real carpet coup in Antalya defined by AbbreviationFinder. For the neighboring villages are the traditional carriers of this craft, and many great editions are available for purchase in the city.

Take a stroll to Konyaalti Cad Street to check out the many shops and carpets and clothing stores.

In Kaleiçi (old town) you will find many souvenir shops and shops selling leather products. For some reason, hookahs are popular souvenirs. But there are also lots of beautiful craft products of copper and hand-painted ceramics that you can buy, which will probably give you more pleasure. Feel free to visit the street market outside the Talya Hotel on Isiklar Street. Here you get most, and not least, food, spices, vegetables and other things for the dining table. Wednesday is market day!

Reasonable price level in Antalya

The price level in Turkey is generally very reasonable. But international brands cost about the same in Antalya as in Norway. The best streets for exclusive and trendy shops are Ataturk and Konyaalti. Local products, on the other hand, are cheap. When it comes to carpets you pay for quality. The more and closer the knots, the more expensive and better the carpet.

Migros 5M

This is a stylish and new shopping center. Here you go to Migros 5M to buy clothes, shoes and other accessories. Location is by Konyaalti Beach.

Eating in Antalya

Eating in Antalya, Turkey

Turkish cuisine is ranked as one of the best in the world. Food and drink in Turkey is too many kebabs, raki, meze and beer. The soup ice cream cone is also ubiquitous. The vegetables are fresh and good, and are available in large portions. Of course, along the coast, seafood is common. Fish and shellfish restaurants are therefore common in Antalya. Although it should not be overlooked that the most popular in Antalya is kebabs and simple barbecue dishes. After all, it is a tourist destination of dimensions!

A restaurant that combines all the best of Turkish food, Mermerli is a restaurant that has been located at the port area for a lifetime. The address is Banyo Sok 24.

Most Turks prefer to start the meal with meze, which in many ways can be compared to antipasti in Italy or tapas in Spain. Often deep-fried seafood or vegetables with strong sauces. Kebab is available in a number of varieties, and if you order fish then serve it fried in pan or grilled. For dessert we like to talk about small sweet pistachio cakes, or fresh fruit.

The national drink is called raki and it is often mixed with water where it turns into a milk blue (gray) color.

Belly dance in Antalya

Belly dancing is part of Turkish culture, and not many restaurants offer this type of entertainment for their food. For example, visit the Konak restaurant in the old town. The address is Ataturk Ortaokulu karsisi. NB! There are not a few restaurants named Konak in town, so don’t get too confused!

Vannilla Lounge
One of the best restaurants in Antalya for those who want something other than Kebab is probably the Vanilla Lounge in the old town. The menu is European. The address is Barbaros District Hesapçı, number 33 in Kaleiçi, (Old Town)

Nightlife in Antalya

For nightlife after the restaurant visit, take a stroll along Hesapci Sokaki Street where there is an abundance of nice outdoor seating and music bars.

Alternatively, head to Club 29, which is a giant outdoor disco. You can find the nightclub at Yat Limani.