History of Murmansk, Russia
According to LOCALBUSINESSEXPLORER, Murmansk is located beyond the Arctic Circle on the eastern coast of the narrow Kola Bay-fjord of the Barents Sea, 50 km from the outlet to the sea. It is the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle and Russia’s largest ice-free port. The port does not freeze all year round due to the warm Norwegian Current. Murmansk stretches along the Kola Bay for 21 km.
Plans for the construction of a port city beyond the Arctic Circle appeared in the 70s of the 19th century. Its construction began in 1915, when Russia, then participating in the First World War, needed an additional year-round access to the sea. October 4, 1916 is considered the official date of the foundation of the city. They called it Romanov-on-Murman. The ancient inhabitants of these places called Murmans the alien Norwegians, and later – the territory where the events took place with their participation – the coast of the Barents Sea. In 1917 the city was renamed Murmansk. From 1921 it became the center of the Murmansk province and began to develop intensively. Murmansk has become a major industrial and fishing center. In 1938 Murmansk became the center of the Murmansk region. During the Great Patriotic War, cargo from the allied countries went through the city port to supply the country and the army. During the war, Murmansk was repeatedly attacked from land and from the air, as it was of strategic importance and provided food for the besieged Leningrad and other settlements. For the courage shown in the fight against the invaders, Murmansk in 1985 was awarded the title of Hero City.
Most of the city’s attractions are located in the vicinity of the central square – Five Corners Square. Administrative buildings are located on it, as well as the tallest building in Murmansk – the sixteen-story hotel “Arktika”. One of the oldest streets of the city originates from Five Corners Square – Leningradskaya street. On it, not far from the hotel “Arktika” stands monument to the victims of the intervention of 1918-1920, this is the first monument erected in Murmansk, it appeared in 1927. The monument is a bridge-tribune; rallies were held here in past years.
From almost anywhere in the city, a majestic sculpture is visible – the figure of a soldier, whom the locals simply call “Murmansk Alyosha”. It is part of the memorial complex to the defenders of the Soviet Arctic. There is a complex on the hill Zeleny Mys. It was built in 1974 in memory of those who died during the Great Patriotic War. The main sculpture is a soldier dressed in a raincoat, with a machine gun over his shoulder. The height of the pedestal of the monument is 7 m, the height of the monument itself is 35.5 m. In terms of its size, the monument is second only to the Volgograd sculpture Motherland. The soldier’s face is turned to the west, to a place called the “Valley of Glory”, where the most fierce battles took place during the Great Patriotic War. Two capsules are immured at the foot of the monument – one with sea water from the place of the death of the legendary ship “Fog”, the other – with earth from the “Valley of Glory”. The Eternal Flame was lit in front of the monument in 1975. Next to the figure of a soldier stands a pyramid, which symbolizes the battle banner lowered as a sign of mourning. Near the pyramid there is a stele with the inscription: “To the Defenders of the Arctic – the soldiers of the 14th Army, the 19th Army, the Red Banner Northern Fleet, the 7th Air Army, border detachments No. 82, 100, partisan detachments” Soviet Murman “,” Bolshevik of the Arctic “, “Polar explorer”, “Stalinist”, “Bolshevik”. Glory to those who defended this land! A little further away you can see two anti-aircraft guns. It was with such guns that during the Great Patriotic War the city was defended from Cape Verde. The complex also includes an alley of commemorative plates of hero cities, opened in 2004. Under each slab, symbolizing one of the hero cities, there is a capsule with earth from that city.
The monument to the defenders of the Soviet Arctic is located in the area of Semyonovsky Lake. The lake is a favorite vacation spot for locals. A small park is spread out here, a fountain operates in the center of the lake, there are attractions and cafes. Also of interest near the lake is the Oceanarium, which was opened in 1992. This is the northernmost aquarium in the world. It hosts performances with sea seals and excursions on the theme of the underwater life of the northern seas. In 2002, a memorial complex to fishermen and ships of the trawl fleet was opened near Semyonovskoye Lake.. The complex includes a lighthouse-stele 17.5 m high, in the lower part of which there is a Hall of Memory. Each wall of the Hall of Memory is dedicated to the fishermen, transport sailors, military sailors and carrier-based pilots who died at sea in peacetime. There is also a Book of Memory with the names of those who did not return from the sea. Next to the lighthouse-stele stands the Church of the Savior on the Waters. The temple was built with donations from the townspeople in 2002. In the Church of the Savior on the Waters there are icons of Christ walking on the waters, northern saints, miracle workers and helpers of sailors – the Monks Tryphon of Pechenga and Varlaam of Keret, the Mother of God, the Apostle of the Slavs – Andrew the First-Called – and the righteous Admiral Theodore Ushakov. In addition, the complex of St. Nicholas Cathedral is interesting in Murmansk (1980), a monument to the Hero of the Soviet Union Anatoly Bredov on Lenin Avenue, a monument to the soldiers of the 6th Heroic Komsomol battery and a memorial sign in honor of the sailors of the Northern convoyswho died during the Great Patriotic War.