Climate of Turkmenistan

Climate of Turkmenistan

Where is the country of Turkmenistan located? Turkmenistan is a republic in Central Asia. Turkmenistan borders the countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran and Afghanistan. To the west is Turkmenistan on the Caspian Sea. Turkmenistan has a cold desert climate in the west (type BWk according to the Köppen climate classification), changing into a cold steppe climate (type BSk). Predominantly lowland Turkmenistan benefits from its location north of several mountainous regions in Afghanistan and Iran, making it difficult for depressions and rain to reach Turkmenistan from the south. This results in a dry climate, in which autumn, winter and spring are relatively dry and the summer period can be called downright dry.

Large temperature differences

The predominantly desert areas are subject to sometimes very large differences in temperature. Especially in spring, when the thermometer can rise to over thirty degrees during the day, it can still freeze locally on the ground. Huge differences can also occur with regard to the highest temperatures measured within a year and the lowest values ​​within that same year. For example, in the summer it can easily reach fifty degrees inland, while in the winter there can be days with bitter cold in the same place. Especially in the eastern half, where the influence of seawater is absent, large differences can also occur within 24 hours between the night temperature and the maximum temperature measured during the day.


Snowfall can occur during the winter months, especially in the Kopet Dagberg Range in southern Turkmenistan. For a pack of snow you have to be at an altitude above fifteen hundred meters above sea level, below that the chance of snow remaining is much smaller. In the Turkmen capital Ashgabat, located at the foot of the Kopet Dag Mountains, it may snow in December, January and February, but it is equally possible that for several consecutive years not a single snowflake is seen.

Climate figures

The figures below are based on long-term average climate statistics. The temperatures are displayed in degrees Celsius (°C).

Maximum temperature Minimum temperature Hours of sunshine per day Days of rainfall per month
January 7℃ -2℃ 4 8
February 9℃ -1℃ 5 9
March 15℃ 5℃ 5 12
April 23℃ 11℃ 7 12
May 30℃ 16℃ 9 9
June 35℃ 20℃ 11 3
July 38℃ 23℃ 12 2
August 36℃ 20℃ 11 1
September 31℃ 15℃ 10 2
October 23℃ 9℃ 7 5
November 16℃ 4℃ 6 6
December 10℃ 0℃ 4 7

Best time to visit Turkmenistan

Do you want to know when is the best time to travel to Turkmenistan? You can determine the best time to travel to a destination based on the weather and climate. In addition, there are other factors that are not directly related to the weather and that can influence the best travel periods for a travel destination. Think, for example, of holidays or festive periods, which makes traveling more interesting or not, because daily life comes to a standstill as a result. Turkmenistan is a special destination in the central part of Asia. The country that used to be part of the Soviet Union. At the moment, Turkmenistan is one of the most closed countries in the world. You don’t just get a visa, even as a European, for which visas are rarely a problem for many countries. If you are eventually allowed to travel to Turkmenistan, you will end up in a fairly extreme climate. The temperature differences between winter and summer are quite large. In winter, for example, it can locally freeze severely, while in the summer months maximum temperatures average somewhere between 30 and 40 degrees. In many places, maximums of around 40 degrees are normal in the hottest months of July and August.

Best months

The best travel time for a holiday to Turkmenistan is in the spring and autumn. Specifically, April and October are the best months to travel to Turkmenistan, although it can be on the cool side at night. In the warmer south and in the capital Ashgabat, the second half of March and the first half of November can also be very pleasant. In Ashgabat, these are the periods in which some rain can fall every now and then. With an annual precipitation sum of roughly 200-250 millimeters, the capital can have the title ‘dry’.

Beach holiday

The summer months are so hot in Turkmenistan that it is actually not pleasant to stay in Turkmenistan during this season. The sun shines exuberantly and it hardly rains in the summer. The temperatures, which often exceed thirty degrees Celsius, make it unpleasant for the average tourist in Turkmenistan. On the Caspian coast, the maximum temperature in the middle of summer is around 35 degrees with sometimes peaks above 40 degrees. The best travel time for a beach holiday in Turkmenistan consists of the months of May, June and September. With daytime temperatures of 27 to 34 degrees, it is great beach weather.

Winter sports

The chance that you will ever go on winter sports in Turkmenistan is probably not that great. The annual number of Dutch people living in the mountains of Turkmenistan can be counted on one hand. That is not because it is not possible to ski or snowboard in Turkmenistan. In winter it is cold enough and in the mountains there is usually enough snow for winter sports. You have the greatest chance of good skiing conditions in January and February.